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[LIFT CLEAN SUBSTANCE PROFILES


Bringing awareness to changes on the 2017 Prohibited List Every year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes


an updated Prohibited List of Substances and Methods, which outlines nine categories of substances and three categories of methods that are prohibited at all times, in-competition only, or in particular sports. On January 1, the 2017 WADA Prohibited List went into effect, and


it includes a number of clarifications that are pertinent to athletes and their support personnel. It is always important to keep in mind that athletes are subject to a standard of strict liability, and, as such, should take the time to review the summary of the major changes to the 2017 WADA Prohibited List to understand the updates. In order to make it easier to interpret, USADA has also developed an online summary of the major changes to the 2017 WADA Prohibited List. Read below for important information on several substances to be aware of on the 2017 Prohibited List:


Molidustat (HIF-stabilizer BAY 85-3934) • History: In the early 2000s, Molidustat was established as an


anti-anemic drug, but researchers have since determined that its actions are similar to the prohibited HIF-stabilizer FG-4592. • Performance-Enhancing Actions: Similar to FG-4592 and


other HIF-stabilizers, Molidustat can boost the production of red blood cells, which effectively increases an athlete’s endurance level.


Higenamine (Norcoclaurine) • History: A substance found in a variety of plant sources,


Higenamine was often used in traditional medicine, and now the supplement industry has started using it as a substitute for Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) and ephedrine. As such, USADA reminds athletes to check your supplement labels for Higenamine (also known as norcoclaurine) or Higenamine plant-based sources (Aconite, Annona squamosal, Nandina domestica, Tinospora crispa, and others). • Performance-Enhancing Actions: Research indicates that


Higenamine has mixed adrenergic receptor activity, meaning it may act as a general stimulant. It may be found in some pre-workout, energy, or weight-loss products.


Presented by USADA


DMBA (1,3-dimethylbutylamine) • History: DMBA is a stimulant studied in the 1940s shown


to raise blood pressure. The supplement industry has since used DMBA as a replacement for Dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Therefore, it’s important to screen your supplements for this ingredient. Please be aware that there is another chemical called DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) that has no relation to the aforementioned DMBA. Other names for DMBA include:


• 1,3-Dimethylbutylamine • 2-Amino-4-Methylpentane Citrate • 4-Amino-2-Methylpentane Citrate • 4-Amino Methylpentane Citrate • Amperall • AMP • AMP Citrate • 4-AMP Citrate • 4-Methyl-2-Pentanamine


• Performance-Enhancing Actions: Research has shown that


DMBA can act as an adrenergic beta-agonist, which leads to increased fat burning.


Nicomorphine • History: A powerful opioid, nicomorphine was developed in


the early 1990s in Europe to manage severe pain in patients with cancer and neuropathic pathologies. • Performance-Enhancing Actions: Similar to other narcotics,


nicomorphine is a powerful painkiller that dulls the nervous system’s ability to detect pain, which could allow an athlete to mask pain or injury, and reduce stress or anxiety levels. The U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) is the national anti-doping


organization (NADO) in the United States for Olympic, Paralympic, Pan American, and Parapan American sport. For more information, visit www.usada.org.


]


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