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intervention. The qualitative findings, exploring the learners' self-perceptions of their abilities, indicated that they felt more confident in their reading and in particular their spelling after the phonics work. The use of nonsense words gave learners a 'practice run' at decoding an unfamiliar word thus providing a strategy for spelling or reading an unknown word in a learners' everyday life. Phonics should be taught in such a manner as to give learners opportunity to practise their phonic skills with authentic resources for use in real-life contexts. Thus, I suggest, the dilemma of teaching a foundation, de-contextualised skill within a realistic contest of relevance to the learner may be resolved.


References


Bell, J., 2010, Doing Your Research Project: A guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, 5 Ed., Open University Press, Berkshire, England.


th Brooks, G., 2010, 'The bother with phonics', Reflect, issue 13, pp.21-23.


Burton, M. Davey, J., Lewis, M., Ritchie, L. and Brooks, G., 2008, 'Improving reading: Phonics and Fluency', Practitioner Guide, NDRC, National Research and Developmental Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, London


Duncan, S., 2009, 'What are we doing when we read? – adult literacy learners' perceptions of reading', Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 14, 317-331.


Geertz, G., 2001, 'Using a multi-sensory approach to help struggling adult learners', Focus on Basics, NCSALL, 5 (A). [Online] Available at http://www.ncsall.net/?id=277 Accessed on 24/08/2011


Greenberg, D., Ehri, L.C. and Perin, D., 2002, 'Do adult literacy students make the same word-reading and spelling errors as children matched for word-reading age?', Scientific Studies of Reading, 6 (3), pp221-243.


Hager, A., 2001, 'Techniques for teaching beginning-level reading to adults' Focus on Basics, NCSALL, 5 (A) [Online] Available at http://www.ncsall.net/?id=280 Accessed on 23/08/2011


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Kruidenier, J.R., MacArthur, C.A. and Wrigley, H.S., 2010, Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of Research [Online] Downloaded from http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/adult_ed_2010.pdf. Accessed on 13/04/14


Lloyd, S., 1998, The Phonics Handbook: A Handbook for Teaching Reading, Writing and Spelling (3 Edition). Chigwell UK: Jolly Learning Ltd.


rd


McShane, S., 2005, Applying Research in Reading Instruction for Adults: First Steps for Teachers', Portsmouth, NH: National Institute for Literacy. [Online].


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Massengill, D., 2004, 'The impact of using guided reading to teach low-literate adults', Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 47, (7), pp.588-602.


Massengill, D., 2006, 'Mission accomplished…it's learnable now: Voices of mature challenged spellers using a Word Study approach', Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 49 (5), pp.420-431


Massengill-Shaw, D. and Disney, L., 2013, 'Expanding Access, Knowledge and Participation for Learning Disabled Young Adults with Low Literacy', Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary and Basic Education, 1 (3), pp.148-160.


Moss, W., 2005, 'Theories on the teaching of reading to adults – some notes', Research and Practice in Adult Literacy, 56, pp.23-27 NALA, 2012, Guidelines for Good Adult Literacy Work, NALA, Dublin


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