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plumbing workshops, electrical theory lessons, and leisure and tourism tutorials. This gave me unique insights into students' performance in their "home" subjects, as well as allowing me to match the skill-sets they use for their vocational subjects' exams to those we teach in English Functional Skills. Moreover, through collaboration, the subject tutors and I compared important notes on student performance, and created resources that would help make the link between English skills and vocational assessments more explicit. Observation of teaching from other subjects has been key in knowing the practicalities of embedded contextualised learning. It is also beneficial to students' confidence when they see teachers working as a team.


3) Developing Lesson Structure Like most practitioners, I have both enjoyed and endured a multiplicity of CPD sessions in the last academic year. Importantly, I learned that aims and objectives set the rhythm of a lesson. Sharp aims and objectives govern how the inevitable measurement of learning can be adequately staged, and how learners find it reassuring to know that they are reaching the end of the lesson. More prosaically, I was told a lesson's aims can be seen as a destination that lies over a river, and the objectives can be viewed as the stepping stones for getting there. I had never achieved such clarity before in either CPD, or in my CELTA and PGCE studies.


In discussions of our aims and objectives, I elicit examples concerning their future employment; we may arrive at different examples, but they are always equally applicable. Comprehension questions may draw on radically different subject content, but each question will always demand the same reading skill. Lessons tend to proceed on the same lines between groups, but with differentiation happening according to ability, group profile, and, importantly, vocational context. Accordingly, I can cover the same learning from the scheme of work, and drop in references, examples, terminology and texts that are specific to learners' programmes of study. Lesson structures tend not to differ radically, which adds sanity to planning phases. The majority of additional time is spent finding "equivalent" texts that can be used for the same pedagogical purpose (be they adverts, reports, descriptions, informative texts, etc.). Re-conceptualising lesson structures through a closer understanding of aims and objectives has, then, been absolutely central to developing my professional practice.


Conclusion The three aspects of CPD that I have experienced are interrelated. They represent a large amount of what I have needed in teaching learners who, initially, may not have appreciated the applicability of literacy to their vocational subject. That is not to say that I no longer have learners who are resistant to or weary of a mandated subject within their programme of study, but I feel as though my recent understanding of the importance of structure has helped enable these less motivated learners appreciate how literacy is a keystone for vocational studies.


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