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L I V E S


Edward Jenner (1749–1823)


Joseph Lister (1827–1912)


Edward Jenner Pencil with wash 4766i Wellcome Library


English physician and naturalist Jenner introduced vaccination against smallpox. He was also a horticul- turist, amateur geologist, zoologist and fossil hunter, even discovering the bones of a plesiosaur in 1819.


Robert Koch (1843–1910)


The Right Honourable Joseph Lister L0002075 Wellcome Images


Lister was an English surgeon who, in 1865, intro- duced the practice of antisepsis into surgery. His use of carbolic acid decreased postoperative fatalities from infection.


Marcello Malpighi (1628–94)


Robert Herman Koch Photogravure Anton Mansch, 1906 M0000731 Wellcome Images


German bacteriologist Koch discovered the cholera bacillus and the bacterial cause for anthrax. He won a Nobel Prize in 1905 after discovering the tubercle bacillus (the first bacterium linked to a human disease).


Marcello Malpighi Oil on canvas 45748i Wellcome Library


Regarded by some as the first histologist, Malpighi used the microscope to describe the major types of plant and animal structure. His work marked out key areas of research in botany, embryology, human anatomy and pathology for future generations.


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