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B R E ATH


With a wholesome look reminiscent of ‘Orphan Annie’, Smokey Sue uses shock tactics to discourage young people from smoking. The pregnant doll’s demonstration of nicotine and tar passing into the jar of ‘amniotic fluid’ (actually water, which turns brown as Sue ‘smokes’) may not be scientifically accurate, but the message is clear.


Itty Bitty Smoker


Another anti-smoking doll, Itty Bitty Smoker, positions a cigarette directly in the mouth of a tiny model foetus. Part of ‘The Womb of Doom’, Itty Bitty is designed to show ‘who really winds up puffing on the 4000-plus toxins in tobacco smoke’.


Tobacco pipes from around the world Wood engraving from The Illustrated London News, c.1873 After J T Balcomb 25000i Wellcome Library


‘Smokey Sue Smokes for Two’ doll


Don’t shock, tax!


In a 1999 study, economists Peter Bardsley and Nills Olekalns found anti-smoking advertising and educa- tion had no effect on smoking behaviour. Analysing 35 years of policy interventions, the pair identified taxation of tobacco products as the most effective way of reducing overall tobacco consumption. Other research suggests fear-based anti-smoking initiatives have no impact on young people whose self-esteem is linked with smoking. Shocking ads may also provoke defensive responses in committed smokers.


Read


Gilman SL, Zhou Z. Smoke: A global history of smok- ing. London: Reaktion Books; 2004.


Hilton M. Smoking in British Popular Culture 1800– 2000: Perfect pleasures. Manchester: Manches- ter University Press; 2000.


Unfi t for cannibals or God


Anti-smoking views were expressed in Europe almost as soon as tobacco arrived from the Americas. James I and VI published (initially anonymously) a pamphlet about the ‘manifolde abuses of this vile custome’ in 1604. Two centuries later, Victorian anti-tobacco cam-


‘Smokey Sue Smokes for Two’ doll Plastic, rubber and wool Adam Rouilly Ltd., 1995 RRa0035 / L0076131 Wellcome Images


paigner Thomas Reynolds invoked powerful fantasti- cal stories in his crusade against ‘the devil’s weed’. Reynolds claimed smokers were left undevoured by cannibals due to their unsavoury tobacco-taste, that Napoleon and Guy Fawkes made their misguided decisions while under the influence of tobacco and that tobacco defeated the designs of God.


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