This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
M I N D


T


he relationship between mind and body has kept Western philosophers


occupied for millennia. While Plato argued that the seat of reason and knowledge was a distinct entity from the physical body, Aristotle disagreed. Centuries later, French philosopher René Descartes’s dualistic model pos- itioned the rational, free will that enables voluntary actions as a separate entity from the machine-like body, which drives automatic refl exes. Views concerning what constitutes


a ‘normal’ mind, and how, or if, unsound minds might be treated, have also changed across time. Traditionally, those considered to be insane, idiotic or of a nervous disposition were cared for by the local communities who also judged them to be so. The rise of psychiatric medicine in the nineteenth century led to the development of ‘mad-doctors’ and specialised institutions for the treatment, or confi nement, of patients. By the turn of the twentieth century,


therapeutic treatments designed to uncover the hidden dimensions of the self were being introduced. Mesmerism, hypnosis and psychoanalysis built up an understanding of a dynamic unconscious and the techniques by which it might be brought to the surface, albeit under the control of the practitioner rather than the patient. Though Freud’s ‘talking cure’ is


probably the most well-known contem- porary example, approaches such as person-centred counselling were developed as a rejection of this control- led relationship. Expressive therapies, such as art or music therapy, also provide opportunities for individuals to engage with and express their inner selves. As artist Edward Adamson wrote, ‘art obliges us to communicate with the inner self, and in so doing, to engage in a dialogue with both our destructive and creative forces.’


What we call a mind,


is nothing but a heap or collection of diff erent perceptions, united together by certain relations, and suppos’d, tho, falsely,


to be endow’d with a perfect simplicity and identity.


Philosopher and essayist David Hume in A Treatise of Human Nature, 1739–40


Flint paintings


‘Skull Head’ Watercolour, Indian ink and varnish on fl int Gwyneth Rowlands, 20th century RRa0287 / Adamson Collection Trust / L0075825 Wellcome Images


Gwyneth Rowlands’s flint paintings are just some of the 5000 works collected by artist Edward Adamson (1911–96), who believed his collection could enlighten the public about the creativity and humanity of those labelled with mental illness. Rowlands spent 30 years in a mental health institution where Adamson, the first artist to be employed in a UK hospital, worked. She painted on pieces of flint discarded by local farmers in the surrounding Surrey fields, fitting intricate drawings to the jagged shapes of her found materials. Producing two to three new pieces a day, Rowlands was also allowed access to the hospital’s studio at weekends.


— 138 —


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205  |  Page 206  |  Page 207  |  Page 208  |  Page 209  |  Page 210  |  Page 211  |  Page 212  |  Page 213  |  Page 214  |  Page 215  |  Page 216  |  Page 217  |  Page 218  |  Page 219  |  Page 220  |  Page 221  |  Page 222  |  Page 223  |  Page 224  |  Page 225  |  Page 226  |  Page 227  |  Page 228  |  Page 229  |  Page 230  |  Page 231  |  Page 232  |  Page 233  |  Page 234  |  Page 235  |  Page 236