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Ashley Diane Allen/Central Michigan University Selection of Literature for Community Children’s Choirs

The purpose of the study was to investigate how teachers selected repertoire for their children’s choirs and what par- ticular factors were integral to that selection. A qualitative case study was chosen for this investigation because of the necessity of participants’ explications to provide both con- text and examples with their responses. Participants (N = 6) were purposively selected from two different states, in dif- ferent areas of the Midwest. Each participant had extensive experience and success in directing and conducting commu- nity children’s choirs with the majority (n = 5) working with auditioned choirs with children’s ages ranging from eight to 14.

Interviews were conducted in person and in a loca-

tion chosen by the participants on two different occasions occurring at least a month apart to assure reliability. The participants were posed a set of pre-determined questions, with each interview requiring an hour each. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. All data were then entered into an Excel database for coding that identified the major themes and patterns. The major themes that emerged demonstrated that participants (a) noted that the literature selection was based on their knowledge of the children’s voice capabili- ties; (b) strongly considered the range of the piece and the fitness for the children’s voices; (c) did not consider national standards in any way; (d) concertedly chose different texts, tempi, meters, keys, accompaniment, voicing, and length, with occasional foreign language texts infused; (e) empha- sized that the “bottom line” was liking the piece of music. The main goal of literature selection was to offer variety to the children for purposes of motivation, interest, and ability to maintain focus during the learning of each piece. Implica- tions for the study are provided for children’s choir directors.

Phillip M. Hash/Calvin College Development and Validation of a Music Self-Concept Inven- tory for College Students

The purpose of this study was to develop a music self-concept inventory (MSCI) for college students that is easy to admin- ister and reflects the global nature of this construct. Students (N = 237) at a private college in the Midwest United States completed the initial survey, which contained 15 items rated on a five-point Likert scale. Three subscales determined by previous research included (a) support or recognition from others, (b) personal interest or desire, and (c) self-perception of music ability.

Factor analysis indicated that two items

did not fit the model and, therefore, were deleted. The fi- nal version of the MSCI contains 13 items and demonstrates strong internal consistency for the total scale (α = .94) and subscales (α = .83 - .92). A second factor analysis supported the model and explained 63.6% of the variance. Validity was demonstrated through correlation (r = .94) between the

MSCI and another measure of music self-perception, MSCI scores and years of participation in music activities (r = .64), and interfactor correlations (r = .71 - .75). This instrument will provide a tool for researchers and educators to assess change or development in music self-concept, and examine other variables related to this construct.

Phillip M. Hash/Calvin College Music Educators’ Concerns Regarding Administrators’ Un- derstanding of Music Teacher Evaluation

The purpose of this study was to determine what concerns Michigan Music Educators had regarding their administra- tors’ understanding of music teacher evaluation. Members of the Michigan Association for Music Education (N = 84) responded to the prompt, “What would you like your ad- ministrator to know and understand about evaluating music teachers in the state of Michigan?” Open response narratives yielded 146 statements that were coded by the researcher. Six themes emerged related to (a) knowledge/understand- ing of music as an academic discipline, (b) uniqueness of music learning, (c) uniqueness of music teaching, (d) need for music teacher-specific evaluation process, (e) need for communication b/w music teachers and administrators, and (f) general comments about evaluation systems. These find- ings suggest the need for greater communication between music teachers and administrators before, during, and after the evaluation process to (a) clarify goals and expectations for music instruction, (b) explain similarities and differences between instruction in music and other disciplines, and (c) interpret evaluation instruments in relation to music teach- ing and learning.

Michael Hopkins/University of Michigan Benefits, Challenges, Characteristics, and Instructional Ap- proaches in an El Sistema Inspired After-School String Pro- gram Developed as a University-School Partnership

See abstract under paper presentation

John Owens/Kent State University Thinking about Jazz: Cognitive Processes and Pedagogical Methods of Jazz Improvisation

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cognitive pro- cesses and pedagogical methods of jazz improvisation. The act of improvisation, flow, communication, and vocabulary emerge as the primary themes related to cognitive process of improvisation. These themes become important in identify- ing the links between how jazz is taught and learned. The achievement of flow, an intrinsic activity, is identified as the optimal experience for jazz improvisation. However, to achieve a state of flow technical skills and instrument mas- tery are prerequisites. This concept illustrates an important


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