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several years might show better technique than a novice, but does not have the same level of understanding of music as a percussionist at the mastery level. Finally, a mastery percus- sionist can create a more artistic and enjoyable performance and can adapt to unfamiliar situations when necessary. It is hoped that the documentation of this developmental progres- sion will lead to the creation of an expertise-based teaching method that will increase students’ learning efficiency.

Roundtable Presentations

John Owens/Kent State University Power Chords, Blast Beats, and Accordions: Understanding Informal Music Learning in the Lives of Community College Students

The purpose of this multiple case study is to explore the ex- periences of informal music learners at a community col- lege. By probing the methods, resources, and strategies used by informal music learners, the author intends to gain in- sights that will inform music educators and reshape music education practice.

this study, the experiences of communi-

ty college musicians provide diverse perspectives informed by social, economic, and cultural conditions. Purposeful sampling was used to provide information rich cases. Spe- cifically, maximum variation and criterion sampling guided the researcher in selecting eight distinct participants with di- vergent perspectives, attitudes, and positions.

This investigation is guided by three research questions. First, how do informal music learners at a community col- lege pursue musical studies and describe their experiences? Second, based on participant experiences, how do these be- liefs and ideas influence their musical understanding? Third, what aspects of how music is learned do participants per- ceive as being beneficial to other musicians? To gather rich and descriptive information, data collection included formal interviews, group interviews, and observa- tions. An interpretive approach to data analysis was utilized to explore, understand, and give meaning to responses. As a constructivist, the author aimed to analyze data with re- spect to the idiosyncratic understandings and beliefs of each participant. Further, in this multiple case study a cross-case analysis was implemented to emphasize findings and main- tain the singularity of each case.

Benjamin Strom/Central MI University Movement Development and Error-Management in Percus- sion Pedagogy

The purpose of this literature review is to propose additions to percussion pedagogy that are based on movement devel- opment models, motor-skill research, and error-management training. Percussion, as it is studied at the collegiate level,

is a multi-instrumental curriculum with techniques specif- ic to each instrument. Teaching a unified approach to all percussion instruments involves developing a hierarchy of movement from which to base visuomotor and propriocep- tive awareness in percussionists. The student should create good posture and body movement habits to prevent injury, improve practice, and increase professional longevity. Un- derstanding the process of motor-skill acquisition and con- solidation may help to shape the way new skills are taught. The treatment of visual feedback can be manipulated in a way that promotes greater consolidation of new motor- skills. Teaching a skill should involve the knowledge of how to practice, as well as an open dialogue between teacher and student on the purposes of the processes used in teaching. Error-management training can reduce the stress of per- formance and enhance critical thinking and metacognitive thought in music practice.

POSTER PRESENTATIONS Friday, January 22, 2016

Daniel Abrahams/University of Arkansas Fostering Personal and Musical Agency in Beginning Conductors

This qualitative study followed a cohort of 15 undergraduate music education majors in a beginning-conducting course. The characteristics of hermeneutic phenomenology shaped the emergent research design.

Literature on the phenom-

enon of conducting, constructivist learning, communities of practice and reflective teaching provided the theoretical frameworks. Research questions included: 1) In what ways did participating in this conducting class foster learner’s per- sonal and musical agency; 2) In what ways did participat- ing in this conducting class assist the participants in moving from the practice of instrumental music to the community of conductors.

The researcher, who was also the teacher of the conduct- ing course, prepared a continuum of instructional episodes for students to complete.

Data included classroom obser-

vations, student reflective journals, and the researcher’s reflective journal. As a result of open, focused and axial coding, findings indicated that students navigated along a continuum with personal practice as instrumentalists play- ing in ensembles on one end, and in the practice of leading ensembles as the conductor on the other. Emerging themes centered on the acquisition of student agency and feeling in control, issues of personal musicianship, and abilities to ne- gotiate power relationships. Students reported that the class became a community of practice that provided collegial support. Throughout the study, students learned to problem solve and to take responsibility for their own progress and learning. Concurrently, as the researcher teacher, I became


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