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more competent with reflective practice and more experi- enced at sequencing the scaffolds necessary for a student- centered experience.

Benjamin Strom/Central MI University Movement Development and Error-Management in Percus- sion Pedagogy

See abstract under roundtable presentations.

Sean Bradley/Central Michigan University Expectation Meets Reality: The significance of Program Notes and their Relation to Audience Enjoyment of Classi- cal and Contemporary Music

A good musician will consider the audience as a part of their performance. Therefore, it is logical to assume that the performer will value the opinion of their audience. The en- joyment of audiences is hard to rate and analyze especially when it comes to contemporary and avant-garde works. Au- diences may be confused by the apparent lack of structure or the lack of consistent sounds. The use of program notes or publicly speaking before a performance can be vital to the audience understanding and enjoying the piece. This study will seek to find two things: first, whether or not program notes are an effective tool to increase audience enjoyment in standard classical repertoire and second, if the same can be achieved for contemporary works.

To determine how effective program notes were in these two scenarios, two groups were assembled of varying musical backgrounds (music major, non-music major, plays music for fun, etc.). One group (Group B) was given program notes for a classical work and a contemporary work while the other group (Group A) simply listened to the pieces. The classical work that was used was the fourth movement of Haydn’s String Quartet in E-flat Major, the “Joke” quartet, and George Crumb’s Black Angels: Thirteen Images from the Dark Land: Image 4 and Image 5. Each group then com- pleted a survey detailing their experiences with the music. Results indicated that program notes helped the audience to understand the piece, but did not necessarily alter their enjoy- ment. There were also some differences in the way partici- pants with strong musical backgrounds perceived the works or had their expectations met compared to non-musicians in both groups. Many responses from participants helped to shed light on some of these findings. One participant from Group B wrote, “The notes didn’t change the fact that it was a creepy piece, but the background helped me to appreciate the composer’s artistic vision.” Several responses were sim- ilar in that the music was unpleasant, but the program notes allowed them to appreciate the music better. This reaffirms the distinction between understanding and enjoying music.


Overall, there was not a strong correlation between enjoy- ment and the use of program notes. However, there was a correlation between listener appreciation or understanding and the use of program notes. A participant from Group A wrote about the Crumb, “If I had had more information on this song a and the ideas or story behind it that I could follow while listening, I believe my experience would have been more pleasant.” A participant from Group B wrote, “The program notes helped me understand what the [composer] was going for in the piece.” Another individual wrote about the Haydn, “I think I liked it more because I was told he was called the ‘greatest composer alive.’”

Mara E. Culp/The Pennsylvania State University A Longitudinal Investigation of Phonological Awareness and Music Aptitude

The purpose this study was to discover the relationship be- tween phonological awareness and music aptitude. To ex- amine this relationship, the Phonological Awareness Test 2 (PAT-2) and the Intermediate Measure of Music Audiation (IMMA) were administered in a rural elementary school in Pennsylvania. In the fall of 2014, participants (n = 17) were in second grade. Participants were tested again in third grade one year later. Speech-language specialists adminis- tered a hearing screening and the PAT-2 individually to par- ticipants and scored the measures. The primary researcher administered the IMMA to participants in groups and scored the measure.

Findings from the first investigation, phase one, indicated a positive relationship between PAT-2 standardized composite scores and IMMA raw composite scores (r = .541, p = .025) as well as IMMA raw tonal scores (r = .526, p = .03). A linear regression helped the researcher determine IMMA raw tonal subtest scores were reasonable predictors of PAT-2 standard- ized composite scores (R2 = .277, F(1, 15) = 5.742, p = .03). A stepwise linear regression helped determine IMMA raw composite scores were reasonable predictors of PAT-2 stan- dardized composite scores (R2 = .293, F(1,15) = 6.207, p = .025) and slightly better predictors than IMMA raw tonal scores. These findings align with previous research assert- ing a positive relationship between phonological awareness and music aptitude.

During the in-progress portion of the study, phase two, the same procedure has been used to test participants. The ob- served predictive potential of IMMA scores for PAT-2 scores in phase one may indicate improving music aptitude early in life naturally improves phonological awareness. Results from this study may serve as further evidence of the relation- ship between musicality and phonological awareness. A fu- ture investigation will use the same measures to test students a final time.

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