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house had a lot of land for testing models and a large barn that Arthur Young quickly converted to a new workshop and test space. He continued testing and refining his tip powered model. However, the stresses in this model proved to be too much for it to handle. Several times he redesigned and remanufactured vari- ous parts to increase their strength only to have anoth- er component fail. In 1938, the outboard engine powered model was completely destroyed during an overspeed test of the rotor blades. Although he had learned a great deal about build- ing models and helicopter flight, Arthur Young was still a long way away from being able to build a working helicopter. He put his model testing on hold at the end of 1938 to attend the first of three Rotating Wing Aircraft Meetings at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia (Spenser, 1998). Several presenters at this meeting would greatly influence Arthur Young’s thoughts on helicopter design. The first was Igor Sikorsky, who made a strong case for the single main rotor and tail rotor configuration. The second was Haviland Platt, who spoke about the ability of hinged rotor blades to provide helicopter stability by allowing the mast to swing without affecting the blades (Young, 2004). The hinged rotor blade idea was very interest- ing to Arthur Young and he came away from the meet- ing with many new ideas. In 1939, he decided to aban- don larger scale models and the tip powered concept and concentrate on smaller models which were again powered by electric vacuum cleaner motors. He began testing both fixed and hinged rotor heads and working on the problem of helicopter stability. Through these experiments and in less than one year, Arthur Young became a renowned authority on rotor dynamics and

was asked to speak at the second Rotating Wing Aircraft Meeting, which was again held in Philadelphia in December of 1939. At the meeting he presented a paper entitled “A New Parameter of Lifting Rotors,” which gave an overview of his findings and discounted the use of hinges to create stability (Spenser, 1998). Just a few days after the meeting, Arthur Young had a major breakthrough when he achieved remarkable sta- bility in one of his models by inventing a stabilizer bar later known as a “fly bar.” This “fly bar” was basically a bar with weighted ends that was set at ninety degrees to the two main rotor blades. The bar acted like a tight rope walkers pole and cyclically controlled the rotor blades, directing the rotor head to remain in its previ- ous plane of rotation even after encountering destabi- lizing forces such as wind gusts. Arthur Young received a patent for the “fly bar”, which he later transferred to Bell Aircraft. The “fly bar” would play a major role in the success of his later full scale helicopters. Within a few months he had a remote control model that exhibited tremendous stability, could hover in place and be flown in and out of the door of his workshop. A year later, at the third and final Rotating Wing Aircraft Meeting held in New York, Arthur Young gave a presentation which covered all of his research and concluded with a film showing the stabil- ity achieved by his model. He instantly became one of the most highly respected helicopter pioneers of the day and was even publicly congratulated by Igor Sikorsky (Young, 2004). After the meeting, Arthur Young knew that his next step would be to apply his developments to a full scale aircraft. He had no desire to start his own company from scratch, but rather began looking for an established aircraft company to Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52