AFRICA ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK 3 • Authors’ Guide
The DPSEEA framework focuses on environment-pressures (in other words we must reduce the pressures on the environment through decreased socioeconomic activity, changes in consumption patterns, improvement in technology) and on Exposures and Effects. The Opportunities framework focuses on the available assets and how they can be sustainably used for human and economic development. These opportunities will be relevant at all the different elements of the DPSEEA framework. For example, there are opportunities to address pressures caused by anthropogenic or natural changes to the state of the environment; there will be opportunities to reduce exposure to different environmental hazards that may result in health effects on humans or the ecosystems; there will also be opportunities to address or understand how and why different communities or social groups are more vulnerable to these exposures. Figure 2 illustrates the hybrid Opportunities-DPSEEA framework; and the CCs and sub-regional authors will be expected to underscore these interlinkages.
USING THE HYBRID OPPORTUNITIES-DPSEEA ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK IN THE AEO-3 Part II of the AEO-3 will contain an integrated analysis of the state and trends in the selected themes. The analysis must be based on reliable data and information on each issue, including: • The environmental state and trends using AEO-1 as the baseline;
• Pressures on the issue, including environmental and other sectoral
policies that were adopted in the 10-year
period before 2002, as explained in AEO-1, and the occurrences of natural events and processes that might have affected the environment;
• Impacts on the sustainability of ecosystem services, human health and well-being and the economy; and,
• Information on policy responses and their performance.
The analysis in this part will require a comprehensive search for data and information relevant to the issues, from reliable published sources. Unpublished material, for instance internal reports, if from reliable sources and based on valid methodologies and approaches, can also be used to supplement data from published sources. Although quantitative data are preferred, qualitative information and descriptive observations can be useful where the former are lacking, for example with gender-related issues.
The data and information should be analysed within the hybrid
Opportunities-DPSEEA framework to give a
comprehensive linkage between health and environment, and to illustrate how socio-economic driving forces can generate environmental pressures, leading to altered ecosystem states, personal exposure to risks, and eventual health impacts.
Where these driving forces, pressures, states, and impacts operate differently
in relationship to gender, this should
be provided for in data collection, and brought out in the analysis. Examples of opportunities for better environmental management should be provided.
Where necessary, it should be used in conjunction with a sustainable livelihoods framework in order to include socio- economic issues where appropriate. The Africa Data Working Group notes that the incorporation of the ‘opportunities approach’ to the DPSEEA framework will further explore responses to environmental issues. The Sustainable livelihoods framework is further discussed in the section on ‘Environment- health inter-linkages and sustainable livelihoods’ p...
OTHER ASPECTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS
Analyzing the impacts of Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) on the environment: There will be need for a brief assessment of the impacts of MEAs on the issues being addressed. This assessment should also be extended to include MEAs developed by Africa at regional and sub-regional level. The assessment will mainly focus on sub-regional, regional and global conventions, but may also cover soft laws, environmental funding mechanisms, and other international environmental mechanisms and bodies as appropriate. The impact of development issues and socio-economic factors (eg trade patterns, technology transfer) associated with the implementation of international agreements, as well as linkages with other international agreements that have an impact on the environment (eg trade agreements) should also be considered in this assessment.
Environment-health inter-linkages and sustainable
livelihoods: The sustainable livelihoods framework examines the interaction between contexts, livelihood means, institutional processes and structures, livelihood strategies, and sustainable livelihood outcomes (Scoones, I. 1998). It is an analytical framework that puts people at the centre of development, thus improving understanding of the connections between people and the overall enabling environment that influences the outcomes of the different livelihood strategies.
In creating a livelihood for themselves, people use various resources and livelihood assets. These include natural resources, technologies, skills, knowledge and capacity, health, access to education, sources of credit, or community networks. Various external factors may limit or enhance access to these resources or livelihood assets. It should be noted that whereas livelihood strategies can often exert pressure on the environment, changes in the state of the environment can also place restrictions on livelihood strategies; and the outcomes of this can have
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