This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
CHAPTER 2 UnDeRSTanDinG UTiliTy naTURal GaS........................................................................23


Objectives ..................................................................................................................................24 Overview....................................................................................................................................24 General considerations .............................................................................................................25 Odorizing natural Gas ............................................................................................................25


natural Gas—chemical and Physical Properties ......................................................................27 Physical Properties.................................................................................................................27 Vapor Density .........................................................................................................................28 Specific Gravity.......................................................................................................................28 Water Solubility.......................................................................................................................28 Vapor Pressure.......................................................................................................................28 Boiling Point............................................................................................................................29 expansion Rates or liquid/Gas Ratios...................................................................................29 liquefied natural Gas—cryogenic lnG.................................................................................29


chemical Properties—Flammability, health, and Reactivity......................................................30 Flammability............................................................................................................................30 health hazards.......................................................................................................................32 Reactivity ................................................................................................................................34 Summary....................................................................................................................................34


CHAPTER 3 UTiliTy TRanSMiSSiOn anD DiSTRiBUTiOn SySTeM..................................................35


Objectives ..................................................................................................................................36 Overview....................................................................................................................................36 Gathering Systems.....................................................................................................................37 Wells .......................................................................................................................................37 Gathering lines ......................................................................................................................37


Processing Plants ......................................................................................................................37 Transmission..............................................................................................................................38 Rights-of-Way .........................................................................................................................39 Pipeline Markings ...................................................................................................................39 Pipeline construction..............................................................................................................40 compressor Stations ..............................................................................................................41 Storage ...................................................................................................................................41


Distribution .................................................................................................................................42 city Gates / “Gate Stations”....................................................................................................42 Distribution construction.........................................................................................................43 Regulator ................................................................................................................................43 Summary....................................................................................................................................50


iv

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36