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TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK
DISINFECTANT (B) Three Component Systems material until it freezes, holding it at that temperature for a
Any compound which will destroy micro-organisms. A blend of a water/wax emulsion and an alkali-soluble resin specified period and then allowing it to warm to room
Carbolic acid (phenol) is one of the best known. Recent or shellac and a synthetic polymer resin emulsion. temperature, when the material again becomes liquid. When
developments in this field have produced a large number Examples of polymer resins commonly used in the polish a material fails a freeze-thaw stability test, solid ingredients
of stronger disinfectants, which are both more effective industry are polystyrene and acrylates. The water/wax in the emulsion separate from the liquid forming a hard
and safer to handle.
emulsion, alkali-soluble resin and synthetic polymer resin mass. The material is then in an unusable condition.
emulsion can be blended in almost any proportions to give Depending upon the type of emulsion, a material may be
DRY-BRIGHT
emulsion waxes with a wide variety of properties. completely freeze-thaw stable over repeated cycles, stable
Normally refers to water-based floor wax which, on
over a limited number of cycles or completely unstable.
application, will dry with a glossy appearance. Dry-bright
ENZYME
floor waxes are also known as ‘self-gloss’ emulsion waxes.
A catalyst produced by living cells, generally protein. FRICTION
The resistance to motion when it is attempted to slide one
DRIERS
EPOXY RESIN
surface over another.
Used to accelerate the drying, or hardening process,
A synthetic resin made essentially from petroleum
particularly in airdrying seals.
derivatives. It is usually supplied in a two-pot form when FUNGI
used in a floor seal. The base component consists of the
Plants without chlorophyll, including moulds and mildews.
DRYING
epoxy resin while the accelerator may be one of a variety of
The process of hardening. Two stages are normally
FUNGICIDE
chemicals. In a solvent-free form it is used for floor laying.
apparent in the drying process:
A substance which destroys fungi.
(A) Touch Dry
ETCHING
GERMICIDE
The stage at which the film will not mark when pressed
The process of forming small cavities in a surface by the
See Disinfectant
lightly with a finger. At this stage the surface has hardened
use of a chemical reagent. For example, when sealing
GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA
to the extent that it will not retain dust and dirt settling
concrete floors it is often desirable to etch the surface
Bacteria which are not coloured by Gram’s stain.
upon it.
with an acid. The cavities so formed, enable the seal to
penetrate further thus ensuring a greater degree of
(B) Hard Dry
GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA
adhesion.
The stage at which the seal or dressing is sufficiently hard
Bacteria which are coloured by Gram’s stain.
to withstand traffic.
FAHRENHEIT
GLOSS
Temperature scale on which water freezes at 32°F and
DUSTING
A shiny surface given by surface coating materials.
boils at 212°F.
This term is normally applied to concrete floors, and refers HARDENER
to the disintegration of the surface layer of concrete into
FILM
See Accelerator
very fine particles of ‘dust’. Almost all concrete floors dust
A very thin layer of a substance which, in the case of a
to some extent, depending upon the concrete mix and type
floor seal, is usually between 5/1000 in and 10/1000
HARDWOOD
and volume of traffic.
in thick.
Hardwood is wood which belongs to the order
Dicotyledoneae, or broad-leaf trees, which includes for
EGGSHELL FINISH
FINISHING COAT
example beech, teak and oak. Many hardwood floors will
Subdued gloss of a surface coating material.
This term is normally applied to a surface coating material
withstand heavy foot traffic successfully over a long period
used as the top coat of a painting or sealing system.
of time. Because of their resistance to abrasion and
ELECTROSTATIC DUSTER
A synthetic fibre duster which, because it generates static
FLAMMABLE
decorative appearance they are usually protected with a
electricity when moved, retains dust.
Capable of being easily ignited
seal rather than with a floor covering.
EMULSIFYING AGENT
FLASHING
HYGIENE
Associated with matt paints and seals. It describes the
Science concerned with the principles of health.
A chemical used in the preparation of emulsions to prevent
alternate matt and gloss striation effects sometimes left by
the components from separating. An emulsifying agent is
INDICATOR
brush marks, instead of the uniform matt finish which
normally only used in small quantities.
A chemical which changes colour when the pH of a
should be obtained. solution changes.
EMULSION
FLASH POINT INTERCOAT ADHESION
A very fine suspension of one liquid in another liquid with
The temperature at which vapour from a liquid will ignite The bonding together of two coats, one upon the other,
which it is not miscible. Oil and water are not normally
when exposed to a small flame or spark. The lower the of surface coating materials.
miscible and will separate if blended together. They can,
temperature at which ignition takes place the more
however, be emulsified by the use of emulsifying agents
flammable is the liquid. For example, acetone, which has a
IODOPHORS
which suspend one liquid in another. By common use the
Disinfectants containing iodine as the main ingredient.
flash point of -17.8°C (0°F) will ignite below ordinary
word has also come to mean the suspension of a wide
room temperature 18.3°C (65°F) and is, therefore, very LACQUER
range of solid materials in water. For example, although
highly flammable; white spirit on the other hand, has a The correct definition of a lacquer is ‘a solution of film
wax is a solid, a suspension of wax in water is called
flash point of 41.1°C (106°F), and therefore requires the forming substances in volatile solvents’. Drying takes place
water/wax emulsion.
temperature to be raised before it will ignite. by evaporation of solvent, leaving the original filmforming
EMULSION WAXES
FREEZE-THAW STABILITY
substances as a thin film on the surface.
(A) Two Component Systems
This property is normally associated with water emulsion LEVELLING
A blend of water/wax emulsion and an alkali-soluble resin
floor waxes and water paints and is the resistance of the Also known as ‘flow’. Levelling is the property of a surface
or shellac. They may or may not dry with a glossy
material to repeated freezing and thawing. One complete coating material to flow out and spread itself evenly over
appearance. An increased gloss can be obtained by buffing. freeze-thaw cycle consists of lowering the temperature of the the surface, so eliminating applicator or brush marks.
The future of our cleaning industry | TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK 2010 |
9
TECHNICAL TERMS
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