TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK
LIQUID WAX pH isocyanate and a form of polyester. Among many other
A combination of wax and solvent, liquid at room A method of expressing acidity and alkalinity in numerical applications, polyurethanes are used in floor seals and
temperature. terms. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. 7 is neutral and paints. For these purposes they are normally supplied in
is the pH of pure distilled water. Materials with a pH below three different forms.
A smooth, but dull, surface.
7 are acidic, the acidity increasing as the pH decreases,
materials with a pH above 7 are alkaline, alkalinity
The base component is the polyester, and the accelerator
METAL FIBRE FLOOR PADS
increasing as the pH increases. For example, vinegar, a
or hardener, the isocyanate. The isocyanate is extremely
These pads are circular and are supplied in a wide range of
weak acid, has a pH of approximately 3, hydrochloric acid,
sensitive to water and moisture vapour in the atmosphere
sizes to fit most makes of floor maintenance machines.
a strong acid has a pH of between 0 and 1. Ammonia a
and must be protected from them during storage. Once the
They are generally manufactured in three grades –
weak alkali, has a pH of approximately 10 to 11, whereas
base and accelerator are mixed, a chemical reaction is
coarse, medium and fine.
caustic soda, a strong alkali, has a pH of approximately 14.
started which only stops when the material has solidified.
Acids, in general, are harmful to flooring surfaces. Alkalis
(B) One-Pot Oilmodified
Type of fungus similar to mould.
will not harm floors when used correctly, but floors treated
In these materials the urethane has already been produced
with strong alkalis must always be well rinsed to ensure
and is further combined with an oil or varnish. They are
that all traces are removed.
Two or more liquids are said to be miscible if, when
often referred to as ‘urethane oils’. Drying takes place by
brought together, they completely intermix to form one PHENOL COEFFICIENT
oxidation of the oil or varnish component.
liquid. Two or more liquids are said to be immiscible if, A method of estimating the disinfecting properties of a (C) One-Pot Moisture-Cured
when brought together, they will not intermix and separate chemical by comparing it with that of phenol (carbolic These materials consist of urethane, already produced, but
into two or more layers. acid); useful only with phenolic disinfectants.
with an excess of isocyanate present. Once applied the
excess isocyanate attracts water vapour from the
Name for any of numerous small fungi appearing on bread,
A synthetic resin manufactured basically from phenol.
atmosphere and hardens the material. The rate of drying
jam, cheese etc. as a fluffy or woolly growth.
Widely used in many surface coating materials, for
will, therefore, depend largely on the humidity, but in this
climate there is sufficient moisture in the atmosphere to
example oleoresinous seals.
effect a complete hardening of the film.
One that when added to water the detergent molecules
dissolve, that is they do not ionize or carry a charge.
A solid colouring matter which forms a paint when mixed
Generally made form alkalis and acids of equal strength,
with a suitable liquid. Pigment not only gives the paint its
This term refers to two-pot materials and is the period
has a pH value of 7.
colour, but also opacity or hiding power.
during which the material is usable once the base and
NYLON WEB PADS
accelerator components have been blended together.
The pads are circular and come in many different sizes to
After this period, the material will have thickened to such
A material which will soften when heated. Plastic materials
fit most floor maintenance machines. They are generally
an extent that it cannot be easily applied.
manufactured in three grades – coarse for wax stripping,
can either be thermoplastic or thermosetting. Thermo
medium for scrubbing and fine for buffing.
plastic materials can be heated and cooled repeatedly
without detrimental effect. Thermosetting materials
A priming coat is the first coat applied on previously
OLEO RESINOUS undergo chemical change when heated and cannot be
untreated surfaces. It provides a foundation on which the
A blend of oil with a resin. The oleoresinous type is one
reheated without causing damage.
durability of the finished system largely depends. For
of the oldest established seals and consists of an oil
example, on wood surfaces the primer is required to be
processed with a resin and combined with solvent and
absorbed into the surface in order to obtain a ‘key’ for
driers. It dries by the action of oxygen in the atmosphere
subsequent coats. On cement, plaster and concrete the
causing the oil and resin to harden – accelerated by the
The description ‘one-pot plastic seal’ is commonly given to
primer is formulated so that it will resist chemical attack by
use of driers.
those seals which do not contain a drying oil and dry by
the alkaline ingredients of the surface on which it is applied.
either evaporation of solvent or by a chemical reaction
ONE-POT (ONE-PACK OR ONE-CAN)
which is activated by evaporation of solvent.
PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) FLOOR COVERINGS
Refers to material packed in a single container and in a
For many years the main floor coverings in this category
The description ‘two-pot plastic seal’ is commonly given to
were flexible PVC and PVC (vinyl) asbestos floor tiles. Tiles
OPACITY those seals which require the blending together of two
containing asbestos may be adversely affected by many
Non-transparency. Generally refers to the hiding power of components prior to use.
solvents, eg white spirit. Today many different materials are
pigmented seal, paint or polish.
used in the manufacture of both products, with varying
degrees of chemical and wear resistance properties.
A very large, complex molecule formed by the reaction
Any disease producing micro-organism.
together of a great number of small molecules of the same
type. Examples are polystyrene and polyacrylate, materials
Rafting is a phenomenon that can occur with sealed new
A seal which will penetrate into the surface on which it is
often used in water-based waxes.
wood block floors, if they have not been properly prepared.
applied. Oleoresinous seals are penetrating seals, in
It is the movement of a large number of blocks
contrast to some plastic seals which are surface seals and
simultaneously, causing a crack to appear in the floor.
A compound formed by the polymerisation of a resin,
do not penetrate to any great extent.
This can be caused if the blocks are subjected to large
styrene. In emulsion waxes polystyrene imparts excellent
changes in moisture content, causing them to shrink
gloss, hardness and levelling.
excessively, whilst at the same time they are tightly
A destructive animal.
POLYURETHANE bonded together by means of the seal. Instead of swelling
PESTICIDE A polymer formed as the result of a chemical reaction and shrinking individually into existing gaps, the blocks
A substance used to kill pests. between two types of chemical compounds, namely an move as a mass causing a large crack to appear.
| TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK 2010 | The future of our cleaning industry
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