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A surface coating formed by reaction between two or more A thick layer of material over the surface coating material, A poison produced by a pathogen.
chemicals. For example, the film formed by a polyurethane eg a paint or floor seal, formed by the oxidation of the
two-pot seal is a ‘reaction coating’, because a chemical surface layer.
reaction takes place when the base and accelerator are
A material which is translucent will allow light to pass
mixed together.
through it, without being transparent.
Softwood is wood which belongs to the order Coniferae, or
conifers, which includes for example spruce, Douglas fir
A disinfectant which can continue to kill microbes over a
and pine. Softwoods are not as resistant to abrasion or
Cloudy, not clear.
period of time after initial application.
impact as hardwoods. They are more suitable for light foot
traffic and are frequently protected with a floor covering,
Refers to materials supplied in two separate containers.
such as PVC sheet or carpet.
A resin can be either naturally occurring or synthetic and is
The contents of one container must be added to the other
characterised by being insoluble in water and soluble in a
and the blended material thoroughly mixed before use.
wide range of solvents, for example, white spirit. Naturally
The total solid constituents, usually expressed as a
The larger container generally contains the base and the
occurring resins are adhesive substances obtained from
percentage, remaining when all solvents are removed
smaller contains the accelerator or hardener.
sources such as pine trees. Synthetic resins are made by
from a material.
chemical means. There are many different resins in use in
A synthetic resin manufactured by heating together two
the industry, for example, phenolic and polystyrene resins.
Any liquid which will dissolve a solid is a solvent for that
chemicals, urea and formaldehyde. Urea-formaldehyde is
solid. Although water is a solvent for many materials, by
widely used in both one and two pot seals. The seals cure
Used to determine the germicidal power of a disinfectant,
common use the word ‘solvent’ has come to mean liquids
by the action of an acid catalyst, which, in a two-pot seal,
carbolic acid being taken as the standard.
other than water. White spirit, for example, is a solvent for
is the accelerator, or hardener.
many resins. Solvent is normally included in a seal to aid
application by enabling the material to be spread easily.
This phenomenon can best be described as severe
Capable of living and developing normally.
wrinkling. It normally takes place where seal has been
applied too thickly and where the surface has dried quicker
It is the number of times a material is heavier than the
A synthetic resin used in the manufacture of many water
than the body of the seal, causing the surface to wrinkle.
same volume of water, at a stated temperature. The weight
emulsion paints, floor coverings, etc.
in pounds of a gallon of material can easily be calculated
by multiplying its specific gravity by ten. For example, the
The removal of old seal, dirt, scrapes and high spots with
specific gravity of white spirit is 0.787. The weight of one
See PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Floor Coverings
a special sanding machine. Mainly used on the wood
gallon of white spirit is therefore, 0.787 x 10 = 7.87lb
group of floors.
SPOT CLEANING Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow; the greater
The removal of soil or stains from small areas where the the resistance, the higher is the viscosity. For example,
A chemical used for cleaning and disinfecting working
whole area does not need to be cleaned. a thick engine oil has a greater viscosity than thin cycle oil.
surfaces and equipment.
Viscosity rapidly decreases with increase in temperature.
A Gram positive bacteria; a major problem with regard to WAX
The removal of grease, oil and impacted dirt from a hard or
cross-infection. (A) Natural
rough surface eg concrete, using a scrubbing machine
fitted with scarifying brushes.
A solid material, chemically related to fats. There is a very
Unable to breed. Totally free from all living organisms.
wide range of naturally occurring waxes. Examples are
beeswax, a soft wax, produced from the sugar of food
A floor seal can be described as a permanent or semi-
STERILISATION eaten by bees, formed as a secretion in the bee’s stomach,
permanent finish which, when applied to a floor, will prevent
A process, usually by heating, that destroys all and carnauba wax, a hard wax produced from the leaves of
the entry of dirt and stains, liquids and foreign matter.
living organisms. trees found mainly in Brazil.
(B) Synthetic
See Drybright
Another term for a surface active ingredient. Generally
There is also a very wide range of synthetic waxes. A well
used with regard to detergents.
known example of a soft wax is paraffin wax, derived from
petroleum. Polyethylene is an example of a harder
Chemicals added to detergents to neutralise or prevent the
synthetic wax frequently used in both water and solvent
effect of hard water during cleaning.
Artificial or man-made. Not derived immediately from
based polishes.
naturally occurring materials.
A tank in which sewage is destroyed or made harmless by
A wetting agent is used to reduce the surface tension
the action of bacteria.
See Plastic.
between a solid and a liquid. In detergents, a wetting
agent is included to loosen dirt from the surface to which
The period during which a finished product is in a usable
A liquid added to a paint or varnish to facilitate application.
it is attached.
condition in its container. After this period the material
For example, xylene is a thinner widely used in polyurethane
may be unsuitable for use due to a variety of reasons,
seals. Once the seal is applied the thinner evaporates.
A solvent derived from the distillation of petroleum and
for example, thickening in the tin, excessive rusting of TOXIC generally known as turpentine substitute. It is widely used
the tin, decomposition due to bacterial attack, etc. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is poisonous. in the polish, paint and varnish industries.
The future of our cleaning industry | TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK 2010 |
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