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TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK
Technical Terms
ABRASIVE NYLON MESH DISCS ANIONIC DETERGENT CAUSTIC
These discs are circular and are supplied in a range of One in which the active part of the detergent molecule has a Destructive or corrosive to living tissue. This term is
diameters to fit most floor maintenance machines. negative charge when in solution in water. Generally usually used in connection with caustic soda and caustic
They consist of nylon fabric mesh coated with resin- manufactured from strong alkalis and weak acids, with a pH potash, two alkaline materials.
bonded silicon carbide. value between 7 and about 9.
CELSIUS
ACCELERATOR ANTISEPTIC A synonym for Centigrade. 0°C is the freezing and 100°C
A substance which increases the speed of a chemical An agent that destroys bacteria or prevents their growth. is the boiling temperature of water. The scale between is
reaction. By common use, the name has become associated divided into 100 equal parts, each called a ‘degree’.
with two-pot surface coating materials. The accelerator
ASEPTIC
CENTIGRADE
usually occupies the smaller container and must be added
Free from bacteria.
See Celsius
to the larger container, the base, before use.
AUTOCLAVE
CLEANING
ACID
An apparatus for sterilisation by high pressure steam.
The removal of dirt, soil or unwanted matter from
See pH
BACTERIA
a surface.
ACRYLIC RESINS
One-celled microscopic organisms, multiplying rapidly by
COMPATIBILITY
Manufactured from acrylic acid. They are transparent,
splitting into two.
The tolerance of one dissolved substance towards another
water-white and thermoplastic. An acrylic resin conveys
BACTERICIDE
dissolved substance. For example, in the process of
the characteristics of toughness, lightness of colour and
A substance capable of destroying bacteria.
applying a new seal onto an old seal a greater degree of
excellent water resistance.
BACTERIOSTAT
intercoat adhesion is achieved if the two seals are
AEROBE
A substance which has the power of preventing bacteria
compatible. If the new seal is incompatible with the old
A microbe that requires the presence of oxygen for growth.
from multiplying.
seal, special preparation may be necessary to ensure that
the new seal will adhere satisfactorily to the old.
AEROBIC
BASE
Using oxygen for respiration.
One component of a two-pot surface coating material.
COPOLYMER
ALKALI
It usually occupies the larger container of the two-pot
A very large complex molecule formed by the reaction
See pH
material. It will not, by itself, form a film and requires the
together of a great number of small molecules of different
addition of an accelerator before use.
types. An example is vinyl acetateacrylate copolymer, a
ALKALI-SOLUBLE RESINS
material used in adhesives.
A resin soluble in an alkaline solution. Alkali-soluble
BIODEGRADABLE
resins are widely used in water emulsion floor waxes.
Can be broken down by bacteria or other biological means.
CORROSION
The slow wearing away of solids, especially metals, by
ALKYD VARNISHES
BOTULISM chemical attack. In the latter case the mechanism is
Manufactured from glycerol. They are normally pale in
Poisoning due to eating flesh or decaying vegetation probably electrochemical.
colour and dry rapidly to a glossy, durable film with
which has been infected with Bacillus botulinus
CULTURE
excellent adhesion. Alkyd varnishes are used in many
(Clostridium botulinum).
Growing microbes on a nutrient plate.
interior, exterior and stoving paints, and in floor seals.
BUFFABLE FLOOR WAX
CURE
ALL-RESIN EMULSION WAX
This term is given to a floor wax which, when buffed, will
Frequently used in the same sense as the word ‘harden’. For
An emulsion wax manufactured from resin constituents.
give greater gloss than when not. The waxes can be
example, a film that has fully hardened can be said to be fully
The term applies to those emulsion waxes which consist of
rebuffed from time to time, as required.
cured. The word is usually used in connection with materials
a synthetic wax, which could be called a resin, an alkali-
BUTTON POLISH
hardened by artificial means, such as a chemical reaction or
soluble resin and a polymer, which is also a resin.
A solution of a button lac in an alcohol solvent, usually of
stoving at high temperature. It is not used in connection with
The term ‘allresin’ distinguishes this type of material from
the methylated spirit type. Button lac is produced from
air-drying materials, eg oleoresinous seals.
an emulsion floor wax containing a natural wax, an alkali-
shellac, the excretion of an insect and is so called because
soluble resin and polymer resin.
DEODORANT
when the raw shellac is refined, the end product has the
A chemical capable of eliminating or minimising
AMPHOTERIC DETERGENT
appearance of buttons.
unwanted odours.
One in which an anionic and a cationic group are in the
CATIONIC DETERGENT
same molecule and has both alkaline and acidic
DETERGENT
One in which the active part of the detergent molecule
properties.
A cleansing agent, which may be solvent or water based,
carries a positive charge when in solution in water.
for removing dirt, etc. It has the advantages over soap in
ANAEROBE
Generally manufactured from weak alkalis and strong
that it is just as effective in hard water as in soft, and does
A microbe that grows only, or best, in the absence
acids, with pH value below 7.
not form scums.
of oxygen.
CATALYST
DILUTE
ANAEROBIC A chemical substance which is used to accelerate a The verb ‘to dilute’ means to reduce in strength by addition
Using no oxygen for respiration. chemical reaction without itself being permanently changed. of water or other appropriate solvent.
8
| TOMORROW’S CLEANING YEARBOOK 2010 | The future of our cleaning industry
TECHNICAL TERMS
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