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. Marwan Haddad, “Politics and Water Management: 23 2009: http://allafrica.com/stories/200902230029.
A Palestinian Perspective”, in Hillel Shuval and Has- html (accessed 14 March 2009).
san Dweik (eds.), Water Resources in the Middle East,
Springer, Berlin, pp. 41-52. . http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/Navigat-
ingPeaceIssue4.pdf (accessed 14 March 2009).
. Fred Pearce, “Israel lays claim to Palestine’s Water”,
New Scientist, May 27 2004: http://www.newscientist. 6. M. El-Fadel, Y. El-Sayegh, K. El.Fadl, and D. Khorbotly,
com/article/dn5037 (accessed 17 March 2009). “The Nile River Basin: A Case Study in Surface Water
Conflict Resolution”, Journal of Natural Resources and
. Ehud Zion Waldoks, “JNF looking to revive plan to im- Life Sciences Education, Volume 32, 2003, pp. 107-117:
port water from Turkey”, Jerusalem Post, March 12 2009: http://www.jnrlse.org/pdf/2003/E02-15.pdf
http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1236764
175387&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Na-
(accessed 13 March 2009). tions, The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008,
Rome, 2008, page 2.
6. The Jerusalem Post: Oct 25 2007, A pipe dream by
Daniel Ben-Tal http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite? 8. There are numerous and varied estimates of the
apage=1&cid=1192380649648&pagename=JPost%2FJP number of people who have been and will be displaced
Article%2FShowFull (accessed 10 June 2009) or forced to migrate throughout this century (Afifi and
Warner, 2008). According to the International Federa-
. Red Sea to Give Life to Dead Sea, Marine Buzz website, tion of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
June 2009: http://www.marinebuzz.com/2009/01/03/ (2003), environmental refugees exceeded those dis-
red-sea-to-give-life-to-dead-sea/ (accessed 10 June 2009) placed by war. The Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2002) estimated
8. Michael T. Klare, Resource Wars, The New Landscape people around the world who have fled because of floods,
of Global Conflict, Owl Books, New York, 2001, page 139. famine and other environmental factors, at 24 million,
exceeding hereby the number of all other refugees; and
. The other major source of discord was the presence Klaus Toepfer from the United nations Environment Pro-
of the PKK in Syria, including the PKK leader Abdul- gramme (UNEP) expected the number of environmental
lah Ocalan. It should be noted that PKK carried out a migrants to reach 50 million by the end of the year 2010
number of attacks over the project, bringing it to a halt (Boano, et al., 2008). While the Intergovernmental Panel
in the early 1990s. for Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) expects the number to
reach 150 million by the year 2050, The Almeria State-
0. Douglas Jehl, “In Race to Tap the Euphrates, The Up- ment (1994) estimates 135 million people to be nega-
per Hand Is Upstream”, New York Times, August 25 2002: tively affected by desertification and droughts. Norman
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B01 Myers (2005) states that there are already 200 million
EED9133CF936A1575BC0A9649C8B63&sec=&spon=& environmental migrants and the Stern Review (2006)
pagewanted=1 (accessed 14 March 2009). mentions that there will likely be 200 million envi-
ronmental displaced people by 2050. Nicholls (2004)
. See Hurriyet, “Enviros win Hasankeyf dam round at expects 200 million environmental migrants by 2080,
high court”, March 14 2009: http://www.hurriyet.com. whereas the Friends of Earth (2007) expects the same
tr/english/domestic/11094336.asp?scr=1 number by 2050 already, including 1 million in small
island states. On the regional level, UNEP expects in Af-
. Thirsty in Lebanon, Contribution to the Barcelona Work- rica alone 50 million environmental migrants by 2060
shop on Environment and Security Issues in the Southern (Boano, et al., 2008). Christian Aid (2007) classifies the
Mediterranean Region, Rania Masri, March 2009. expected environmental migrants by breaking down its
predicted number of approx. 0.9 billion people by 2050
. They are: Burundi, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, to 250 million people affected by droughts, floods and
Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Congo. hurricanes and 645 million by dams and other develop-
ment projects.
. Edwin Musoni, “Africa: Rift Widens as Egypt, Sudan Afifi, Tamer and K. Warner (2008): The Impact of
Delay Signing Nile Basin Pact”, The New Times, February Environmental Degradation on Migration Flows across

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