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In the Maghreb poverty, desertification, diffi-
cult access to the European market and, more Population
recently, political persecution and conflict Population growth
have encouraged migration to Europe. The in 00 00–00
global economic and food crisis will further
Country (millions) (% per annum)
exacerbate the flow of migrants, driven by a
complex mix of poverty, desertification, in-
Albania 3,2 0,6
adequate governance and migration. Moving
Algeria 34 1,5
to the northern shore of the Mediterranean,
Bosnia-Herzegovina 4 0,1
Spain is the country most affected by migra-
Croatia 4,5 –0,1
tion. According to Eurostat, Spain has been
Cyprus 0,8 1,1
the prime destination of migrants since 1997,
Egypt 75 1,8
registering a positive migration balance of
France 62 0,5
652 300 people in 2005.
Greece 11 0,2
Israel 7 1,7
Illegal sub-Saharan migration is a trans-region-
Italy 59 0,1
al problem affecting both shores of the Mediter-
Lebanon 4 1,1
ranean. Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Lybia 6 2,0
and Libya, which used to be a source of mi-
Malta 0,4 0,4
grants, are now transit countries for migrants
Monaco 0,03 0,3
from sub-Saharan Africa. With host countries
Montenegro 0,6 –0,3
tightening immigration controls, some sub-
Morocco 31 1,2
Saharan migrants will stay in North Africa, the
Occupied Palestinian
largest stream heading for the northern prov-
Territory 4 3,2
inces of Morocco and Tunisia. The gravity and
Slovenia 2 0,0
complexity of the problem was highlighted by
Spain 44 0,8
the events of September 2005 in Ceuta and Me-
Syria 20 2,5
lilla

and other dramatic attempts by prospec-
Tunisia 10 1,1
tive sub-Saharan and North African immigrants
Turkey 75 1,3
passing through Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lib-
ya, Mauritania or Senegal.
Source: UN Data (http://data.un.org).


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