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VIEWS Fro romthepenof... PaulA.Kirs


In our regular series looking at authors wo


education, thismonthwe hear fromPAUL A. KIRSCHNER and CARL HENDRICK, authors of “HowLearning Happens”.


Hooke and Isaac Newton. One particular dispute fiercest is the ‘war of letters’ between Robert Of all the bitter feuds in Science, one of the


between thempopularised a phrase which has


observations about progress and the way in now become one of themost prominent


discovered the nature of diffraction, but Newton cumulative in nature. Hooke claimed to have which true scientific discovery is inherently


claimed that this ‘discovery’ was largely a result of earlier work by French and Italian scientists who had conducted similar experiments. In a letter to Hooke in 1675, Newton wrote:


of th


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ts. esp ta Paul A. Kirschner rschner&CarlHendrick working in the field of UK BritishEduca cational Suppliers tw rsAssociation(BESA) A) A tale of two countries


Policy Analyst,who examines the resource month,we hear fromALEXANDER SHEA, In our regular column fromBESA this


short rtfall in our schools.


It’s hard to think of two countries that have more in common than Australia and the UK. Since 1901, when the six British crown colonies in Australia federated, our nations have shared a common tradition of representative democracy, a belief in religious toleration, and, in more recent times, a misguided appreciation of KylieMinogue. If our two nations’ histories have been glued together by the


Commonwealth, cricket and the English language, today it is something altogether more unpalatable that joins us at the hip. As the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported in December, among the world’s leading economies, our two nations are now standard bearers for educational injustice.


Carl Hendri Ca speciaiallyly in takining th rick the colours


osop cal consideratratiion. If I have seen furthfu ther it isis rs of Giaiants


We as educators also need to stand on the shoulders of giants who have studied how we learn and how we can best design, develop, and implement instruction tomake teaching and learningmore effective, efficient, and enjoyable (satisfying). Our new book How Learning Happens: Seminal Wo ks in Educa Mean in Pra


Works catioional PsychsycPsychology gy and Wh They ractice attempts tomake the knowledge and evidence


produced by these giants available to teachers, parents, administrators, and educational policymakers in language that they can easily understand.


For our book we have chosen 28 key works on learning and teaching, fromthe fields of educational and cognitive psychology, and offer a roadmap of these important discoveries in how learning happens. Each chapter has the same structure. First we explain why work is so important or ground-breaking; in other words why you should read this article.We then present the original abstract and describe the research and the insights that it has produced. Having done this, we continue by describing the work’s implications for both education in general as well as your own classroomteaching.We end each chapter with takeaways (tips and tricks) for teachers and then provide the references used followed by ‘Suggested Readings and Links’ with QR codes that lead the reader to other, often popular, articles or websites.


Clearly divided into six sections:


• How our brain works and what thismeans for learning and teaching


• Prerequisites for learning • How learning can be supported


• Cautionary tales and the ten deadly sins of educat • Learning in context • Teacher activities


The final section, Ca tionary Ta Cauti ion. ry Tales, discusses three articles on how


learning can be hindered rather than facilitated if you do the ‘wrong’ things and closes with a chapter on prevalentmyths and fables in education (Te


Ten Deadlyly Sinins); ideas on or approaches to teaching that sound temptingly logical and good - and for that reason are


unfortunately embraced bymany - but which actually prevent learning. Our book isn’tmeant to be a set rules to be obeyed. It’s nothing more but certainly nothing less than an introduction to a trajectory of thought that will hopefully lead to reflection. It’smeant to help the reader know and understand the theories behind educational practice so as to optimize their teaching. Likemost things, good art – and teaching is ultimately an art that is informed by science - both anticipates the future and acknowledges the past.


How Learning Happens by Paul A. Kirschner and CarCarll Hendri ava


by Pa vaililalable fr fro romwww.routledg w.ro March 2020 Kirs dge.com/9780367184 84575 rick isis What They rs Awidening gap between rich and poor


Government policy is supposed to distribute educational resources in accordance with educational need. Yet both our countries have presided over a widening resource gap between our richest and poorest state schools. 1 in 4 schools in Australia and the UK cannot afford basic classroom materials such as textbooks, science equipment and ICT. Their story is juxtaposed with one of wealth. To take the UK’s figures alone, while the top 25%of state schools spend as much as £529.61 per pupil on learning resources, the bottom quartile spend less than £206.60.


Investment in learning resources improves outcomes It’s not just this bottom 25%of schools that are suffering. Across England in 2018, primary and secondary schools had, respectively, £13 and £100 less to spend on learning resources than they did in 2013. The brunt of this funding shortage is being borne by teachers, parents and, ultimately, pupils. According to the UK Department for Education, teachers now spend £137 of their own money on stationery, textbooks, and software subscriptions for their pupils. 40%of parents have similarly been asked to contribute money to schools.


But it is pupils who suffer the most. According to a study published by University College London last November, outside of natural pupil ability and family wealth, it is schools’ investment in classroom materials, science equipment and ICT that is the primary predictor of pupils’ educational attainment. As UCL’s research showed, when controlling for prior attainment, students at well-resourced schools scored on average two grades higher at A level compared to their peers.


BESA’s Resource our Schools campaign


The odds of educational success in UK schools are already stacked against the cash poor. Today’s seven year-old on free school meals will be 22.6 months’ worth of learning behind their peers by the time they turn 16. The conclusion is clear: we can’t afford any more policies that detract from the educational outcomes of these children.


At BESA, we believe that each child is worthy of receiving the same educational start in life as their peers. For this reason, our new Resource our Schools campaign is calling on government to ringfence the current national average of £300 per year for all schools to invest on each child’s learning resources.


But we need you to play your part. Our


www.resourceourschools.org.uk website shows you how much schools in your area are spending on learning resources, and how this affects local students’ educational outcomes. The website allows you to send an automatically-generated email to yourMP calling for £300 of per pupil funding across all schools. Each email incorporates your region’s


2020 is the year we must close the resource gap in our schools. The data within it, and allows you to add your own comments.


futures of many children depend on it. Twitter:@besaalexshea


Tw www ww.resourceourschools.org.uk www.education-today.co.uk 31


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