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Lube-Tech


The best-known test of oxidation stability for vegetable oils is the Oil Stability Index (OSI) as used by food processors. Figure 1 shows a picture of the Oxidative Stability Instrument that is used to determine the Oil Stability Index (OSI).


Figure 1: Oxidative Stability Instrument. Picture: Courtesy of Environmental Lubricants Manufacturing, Inc.


A newer test instrument using a similar concept is the Rancimat method that also determines the oxidation stability of natural fats and oils, in their pure form as well as in fat-containing foods and cosmetics. Table 1 presents the properties of some vegetable oils including the Oil Stability Indices.


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.127 page 2


79 C for 1000 hours. Figure 2 presents the test stand used to perform the ASTM D7043 hydraulic oil test. 5 gallons of test oil is circulated through the pump with standard vane cartridge and the viscosity of the oil is drawn every 100 hours and tested to determine change. The temperature is maintained at 79°C by the use of a heat exchanger.


Figure 2: Test stand set up based in the ASTM D 4370. Picture: Courtesy of Environmental Lubricants Manufacturing, Inc.


The oil within this test is exposed to metal surfaces, friction generated heat, atmospheric moisture, light and oxygen. Oxidation can be determined by an increase in viscosity and changes in the Total Acid Number of the oil. Experimentally, field test observations have shown that changes of viscosity of less than 10% in the 1000-hour test could be desirable for moderate use hydraulic system. Table 2 shows the viscosity of selected test oils at the start of the test and after 1000 hours of testing.


Table 1: Properties of selected vegetable oil. Source: Environmental Lubricants Manufacturing, Inc.


Researchers at Environmental Lubricants Manufacturing have relied on a more practical test to determine performance of vegetable oils in actual use. Using the ASTM D7043 (formerly ASTM D2271) the oil is tested in a Vickers Vane Pump at 1000 PSI and


Table 2: Summary of Viscosity Changes in Vickers VQ-20 Vane Pump Tests: ASTM D-7043 (formerly ASTM D 2271 Vickers 104C Vane Pump).


LUBE MAGAZINE NO.156 APRIL 2020


27


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