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FLAME RETARDANTS | ADDITIVES


Results of UL94 flammability tests carried out on PA6 compounds containing different additive combinations Burning time


Burning time FR content


Kaolin TEC 110 AST with Phosphinate 1


FR concentration 30% Kaolin, 20% FR


30% Kaolin, 18% FR 30% Kaolin, 16% FR 30% Kaolin, 14% FR 30% Kaolin, 12% FR


Kaolin TEC 110 AST with Phosphinate 2


30% Kaolin, 20% FR 30% Kaolin, 18% FR 30% Kaolin, 16% FR 30% Kaolin, 12% FR


after first flame 7.06


16.19 16.67 19.2 68.4


9.32


16.42 11.51 20.7


after second flame 9.87


10.4 14.8 3.0 5.7


– 8.43


24.73 6.7


Note: 1: None of 5 samples tested exhibited flame dripping; 2: All 5 samples exhibited flame dripping Source: Quarzwerke


sustainable solution for printed circuit boards. “This polymeric, non-halogen and active ester curing agent provides high flame-retardant efficiency, lower dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (DF) than other commercial phosphorus-based flame retardants,” it says. “PolyQuel P100 improves critical electrical


properties while satisfying all the thermal, chemical and mechanical properties required for optimal performance of printed wire boards. It provides high glass transition temperature, exceptional thermal stability and superior pressure cooker test performance.” ICL recommends the new product for epoxy-based, halogen-free, mid to low loss CCL applications. ICL has also developed and launched antimony


trioxide-free solutions for polyamides, polyesters and styrenic compounds, “to deal altogether with the stringent fire safety requirements and the required cost efficiency of the E&E markets.” It says they allow users to maintain the compound’s mechanical, thermal and rheological properties, while improving devices’ electric-shock resistance (as expressed by the CTI). “By lowering compounds’ density, these innovative formulations allow a significant weight per part reduction, thus leading to better cost-efficiency performances,” the company claims.


Antimony worries Antimony trioxide has been in the cross-hairs of regulators, owing to its possible links to cancer. The National Toxicology Program, within the US Department of Health and Human Services, earlier this year produced a draft Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Review of Antimony Trioxide, which was published in revised form in August. It concludes that antimony trioxide is “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.” Considerable effort continues to be poured into


www.compoundingworld.com


development of synergistic FR systems. At the AMI conference, Peter Sebö, Head of Marketing & Market Development at Quarzwerke, will discuss the use of kaolin as a flame-retardant synergist. The company has been investigating the possible partial replacement of common flame retardants like phosphates and phosphonates by kaolin in engineering plastics such as polyamide. Sebö says that normally around 20% of a phosphonate or phosphate is required in a 30% glass fibre reinforced PA to achieve a V-0 rating at 0.8 mm. Kaolin loses around 14% water at around 400°C and is therefore suitable as a flame retardant for engineering plastics, he says. Quarzwerke looked at the replacement of the glass with kaolin and/or wollastonite, as well as the reduction of the amount of the FR additive. Researchers concluded that use of kaolin as a flame retardant “is possible and reasonable” and that the quantity of the flame retardant can be reduced and substituted by kaolin. Mechanical properties also show good results. Also at the AMI conference, Jochen Wilms from


Byk discusses the use of clay-based additives as synergists in HFFR compounds using ATH or MDH as the principal flame retardant. They can act to reduce dripping and also reduce heat release. Byk-LPT 23617 is a new blend of flame-retardant


synergists. Tests on its use in cable compounds show that it provides a considerable improvement in FR properties while leaving mechanical and wet electrical properties either unchanged or improved. Applied Minerals — which owns the Dragon Mine in Eureka, Utah, US (the largest commercial source of halloysite in the western hemisphere) — says this clay mineral has also been shown to be an excellent char forming flame retardant synergist for non-halogenated flame retardants such as ATH and MDH. Halloysite, a tubular alumina silicate that functions as a thermal and electrical insulator and is


December 2018 | COMPOUNDING WORLD 45 Flame


dripping 0/51


0/51 0/51 0/51 0/52


0/51 0/51 0/51 0/51


UL-94 rating


V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-2


V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0


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