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MYCOTOXINS ▶▶▶


Mycotoxins in aquaculture: A mitigation approach in turbot


BY DR RADKA BORUTOVA, DVM, PHD, EUROPEAN TECHNICAL SUPPORT MANAGER, ALLTECH MYCOTOXIN MANAGEMENT


P


lant-based ingredients in commercial fish diets in- clude maize, soybean meal and various cereal grains, each representing a potential source of my- cotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated fish feed is a


widespread problem, especially in tropical regions and devel- oping countries where the farmers themselves often make fish feeds under inappropriate conditions with improper mill- ing and/or storage. In addition to their impact on fish health, some mycotoxins can also accumulate in fish tissue, thereby posing a possible food safety risk. About mycotoxins in aquaculture According to a recent risk assessment study on mycotoxin contamination in fish feeds in Europe, deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the primary mycotoxins present. DON is produced by over 50 species of Fusarium fungi, which mainly infect crops such as wheat and maize before harvest. Fusarium fun- gi produce a range of mycotoxins, such as fumonisins, the tri- chothecenes — most strongly associated with chronic and fatal toxic effects in animals and humans — and zearalenone, which is known to affect the fertility of many animal species, including aquatic species such as fish and shrimp. The impact


Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food production industry in the world. Due to concerns about sustainability, the need to replace fish meal with plant-based protein alternatives becomes more urgent. However, plant-based ingredients are often contaminated with mycotoxins, increasing the health risks to fish.


of mycotoxins depends on several factors, including the type and quantity of mycotoxins in the feed, feeding level, dura- tion of exposure and the species of fish. Most common issues include reduced growth performance, immune suppression and increased mortality. These are often associated with other on-farm concerns, so the mycotoxin risk is currently underestimated.


Impact of DON on gastrointestinal barrier Previous studies in mammals have demonstrated a reduction in weight gain and nutrient utilisation, immunosuppression, oxidative stress and organ damage associated with the ingestion of DON-contaminated diets. The digestive tract


Table 1 – Effects of DON and yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) on growth performance and whole-body composition of turbot (IBW:12.41 ± 0.04 g)*.


Diets Control 0.5 ppm DON


0.5 ppm DON + 0.1% YCWE 0.5 ppm DON + 0.2% YCWE 3.0 ppm DON


3.0 ppm DON + 0.1% YCWE 3.0 ppm DON + 0.2% YCWE


FBW (g)


38.99±0.94 37.42±2.62 35.82±0.15 36.14±0.58 33.82±1.00 35.32±0.94 34.76±0.19


WG (%/day) 213.12±7.88a 179.61±0.93ab 188.75±1.76ab 192.99±4.59ab 171.40±2.65b 186.06±4.14ab 179.79±0.46ab


SGR (%/day) 1.70±0.04a 1.53±0.10ab 1.58±0.01ab 1.60±0.02ab 1.49±0.02b 1.57±0.02ab 1.53±0.00ab


FI (g/fish)


18.77±2.08ab 17.60±0.93ab 17.72±0.45ab 20.49±1.13ab 17.18±0.40b 18.78±1.15ab 17.56±1.10ab


FER


1.38±0.09a 1.30±0.03ab 1.32±0.03ab 1.28±0.06ab 1.24±0.01b 1.23±0.05b 1.28±0.04ab


Survival % 95.55±2.22 96.67±1.93 98.89±1.11 93.33±0.00 95.55±2.22 92.70±2.03 97.78±1.11


*Values represented are means ± S.E. of 3 replicate tanks. Abbreviations: IBW: initial body weight; FBW: final body weight; WG: weight gain; SGR: specific growth rate; FI: feed intake; FER: feed efficiency ratio.


▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 29, No. 5/6, 2021 39


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