site, have deeply knowledge of breeding species and market needs and know a lot about the nutrition indica- tors of the ingredients used. The formulators also need to have comprehensive knowledge of husbandry and animal nutrition.

Use of functional feed additives Make full use of the functional additives; reduce or remove additives with similar functions to avoid waste. For example, emulsifiers can improve the utilisation of fat, so that the amount of fat can be safely reduced. Enzymes can increase the digestibility and utilisation of starch and protein materi- als, so that the nutritional indicators can be adjusted appro- priately. Acidifiers, microorganisms and plant extracts, etc., can reduce the use of drugs. Advantage: reduce the repeated use of additives to save costs, improve the digestion and utilisation of raw materials, reduce the damage to animals caused by anti-nutritional factors and mycotoxins, improve animal immunity and intestinal health, promote animal growth, reduce FCR, improve meat quality and reduce breeding costs. Disadvantage: Formulators have to comprehensively learn about the techniques and effects of each additive and deeply understand complementary effects among additives.

Improving fat utilisation Recently, the price of feed oil in China and Southeast Asia has been rising. Additives to improve fat utilisation, such as bile

acids, emulsifiers, lipases, etc., can appropriately reduce the metabolic energy level of the formula and reduce costs. Meanwhile, by increasing the use of fat, the utilisation of pig- ments and vitamins is improved so that the addition of pig- ments and fat-soluble vitamins can be moderately reduced and feed costs can be reduced. Advantage: This can maximise the use of fat nutrition and improve the absorption and utilisation of fat-soluble sub- stances such as pigments and fat-soluble vitamins, and reduce formula costs. Disadvantage: Formulators need to fully understand fatty acid compositions in different fats and from fats made by different factories, and their uses in different species.

Conclusion There are various solutions that can be used to reduce feed costs. To select feasible solutions, local feed ingredients and price fluctuations must be taken into consideration. Do not only reduce the formula cost, but also ensure feed production performance. Objectively making an analysis and compre- hending advantages and disadvantages among solutions; sometimes we can’t lower the cost by adjusting the formula due to limited feedstuffs. In this case, by optimising the for- mula and using additives without increasing the feed cost, the animal production performance still can be improved, which is also the value of cost reduction. Cost reduction, energy saving, production optimisation and consumption reduction are permanent aims of feed producers.

▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 29, No. 5/6, 2021 11

Various actions can be taken to reduce the costs of feed.

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