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Volume 42- No. 49 by Caludia Aragon

World War I began on July 28, 1914, and ended on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. The war was triggered in part by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria, by a Yugoslavian nationalist. Several alliances which had been formed over previous decades were invoked, and within weeks the major powers were at war. The conflict soon spread throughout the world.

There were two opposing fac- tions: The allies, consisting of Britain, France and Russia, which the United States later joined, and the Central powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.

More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans were mobilized in one of the largest wars in histo- ry. A staggering total of over 9 million combatants were killed, in large part due to the great technological advancements in firepower, without further and corresponding advancements in mobility. The majority of the fighting was done on the ground using the infantry sol- diers, resulting in close rank fighting and hand to hand com- bat.

WWI was the 6th deadliest con- flict in world history and subse- quently paved the way for polit- ical changes—such as, later internal revolutions in the nations involved. With the advancement of weapon tech- nology and the ability to become airborne, World War I brought new horrors to the bat- tlefields of Europe.

The United States had a long standing policy of isolationism and was reluctant to become involved in what was deemed and viewed as a European war. However, in 1917 a coded tele- graph message from Foreign Secretary of the German

The Paper - 760.747.7119 email:

December 15, 2011

Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, to Mexico was intercepted and decoded by a British agent.

Zimmermann's message was:

FROM 2nd from London # 5747.

"We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of

this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform President Carranza of the above most secretly,

as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is cer- tain, and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our sub- marines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMER- MANN

Patriotic Portraiture Continued on Page 2

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