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PICTURE CREDITS Cover, page 4 (top left) © Igor Siwanowicz; cover logo (stingray) © Stephen Frink/Corbis; (dancer) © dbimages/Alamy; (caterpillar) © Anthony Mercieca/ Photo Researchers, Inc.; pages 2-3 © David A. Northcott/Corbis; page 4 (bottom left) Nature’s Images/Photo Researchers, Inc.; page 4 (bottom right) George Grall/National Geographic Stock; page 5 (top) © John R. MacGregor/Photolibrary; page 5 (left center) © Thomas Marent/Minden Pictures; page 5 (bottom right) Anthony Mercieca/Photo Researchers, Inc.; page 6 (bottom left) © Brian Kenney/Photolibrary; page 6 (top right) Scott Camazine/Photo Researchers, Inc.; page 7 (top) © Rick & Nora Bowers/Alamy; page 7 (center) © Gary Meszaros/Getty Images; page 7 (bottom) George Grall/National Geographic Stock; page 7 (background) © DenisNata/Shutterstock; page 8 © Michael & Patricia Fogden/Minden Pictures; page 9 (clockwise from egg) © Michel Greff/ Photolibrary; © Jens Stolt/Shutterstock; © Ingo Arndt/Foto Natura/Minden Pictures; © Silvia Reiche/Foto Natura/Minden Pictures (rest); pages 10-11 Tim Laman/National Geographic Stock; pages 12-13 © Kieron Nelson; pages 12-13 (borders) © El Greco/Shutterstock; pages 14-15 © dbimages/Alamy; pages 16-17 Karl Schuler/http://photo.net/photos/karlschuler; pages 18-19 (top) © Stephen Frink/Corbis; pages 18-19 (bottom) © Reinhard Dirscherl/ SeaPics.com; page 20 Andy Murch/OceanwideImages.com; page 21 (top) © Mike Veitch/SeaPics.com; page 21 (bottom) Michel Braunstein; page 22 © Amar & Isabelle Guillen/SeaPics.com; page 23 (top right) © Jeffrey L. Rotman/Corbis; page 23 (bottom) Paul Sutherland/National Geographic Stock; page 24 © Greg Epperson/Shutterstock. .


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Vol. 10 No. 7 DEVELOPMENT TEAM


Vice President and Publisher: Francis Downey


Art Director and Designer: Karen Thompson Editors: Brenna Maloney Macon Morehouse Sara Chauhan Digital Editor: Shelby Alinsky Digital Designer: Ryan Ford Designer: James Wildman Photo Editor: Shannon Hibberd Permissions Editor: Jean Cantu Production Specialist: Dreama Karnes-Bynane


SCHOOL PUBLISHING GROUP


President and Chief Executive Offi cer: Alison Wagner Research Manager: Christina An


MANUFACTURING AND QUALITY CONTROL Chief Financial Offi cer: Christopher A. Liedel


Sr. Vice President: Phillip L. Schlosser Director: Clifton M. Brown Manager: Nicole Elliott Postal Director: Kerry Knight


PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY John M. Fahey, Jr., Chairman and CEO Timothy T. Kelly, President


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER (ISSN 1938-8004) is published seven times during the school year—September, October, November–December, January–February, March, April, May—by the National Geographic Society, 1145 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036–4688. Postmaster: Please send address changes to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER, PO Box 4002865, Des Moines, IA 50340–2865.


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Copyright © 2011 National Geographic Society. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction of the whole or any part of the contents of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER without written permission is prohibited. National Geographic, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORER, and the Yellow Border are trademarks of the National Geographic Society.


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