Monika Froehler is Chief Executive Officer of the Ban Ki-moon Centre for Global Citizens

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he Ban Ki-moon Centre is naturally focused on climate change mitigation and adaptation, given our work empowering women and the youth within the framework

of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement. Ban Ki-moon, a founder of this Centre, also launched and co- leads the Global Commission on Adaptation. The Commission aims to encourage the development of measures to manage the effects of climate change through technology, planning and investment. Adaptation efforts in developing countries need to be ramped-up. Financing for climate action mitigation is far bigger than financing of adaptation. We need to get the balance better, but not at the cost of taking away from mitigation. Methods to manage adaptation in developing countries include national development strategies, National Adaptation Plans and the

National Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement. There are good examples in a number of countries, but institutions often lack funding or the ‘teeth’ to make a real difference. While progress often exists at the national level, there is less evidence at a sub-national level. One interesting question is why there is so much engagement with adaptation in some developing countries and less in others? This appears to be a result of bilateral and multilateral donor priorities and depends heavily on the respective country's policy focus. Developing countries that focus on agriculture adaptation, for example, benefit from a wide understanding of the issues at play and the international community’s recognition that help is needed. Gender initiatives attract focus for similar reasons. So while agricultural adaptation gets attention, unfortunately, adaptation measures in health services, forestry and fisheries are generally rather underdeveloped on the donor

and recipient side. Engagement in climate change adaptation

is certainly not about a country’s level of development – it doesn’t appear to be related to GDP or even exposure to climate risks. More important seems to be senior government leadership. When leaders buy in and focus on adaptation, more climate finance is forthcoming and the more expertise and capacity is built up ‘in-country’.

Gender equality is central to climate change adaptation planning. Women are harder hit by the impacts of climate change for several reasons. Between 45 and 80 percent of the agricultural workforce are women and yet they are often excluded from decision making and have no property rights. Natural disasters kill verifiably more women than men. Women's and girls’ health declines more in times of food shortage than men's. Climate change leads to migration and displacement and exposes women to many

PHOTO: Laurent Ziegler/Ban Ki-moon Centre

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