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Benefi t-cost ratios (BCRs) were calculated for a wide variety of types of car club project in a range of different contexts.

Table 1 - Headline benefi t:cost ratios for car club projects Scheme

5 year BCR 1.67 30 year BCR 10.44 5.71 2.83 35.53 17.65

The calculations were based on detailed submissions made by the different projects coupled with evidence of impacts and outcomes informed by the Carplus annual survey of car clubs.

Derbyshire NECA Isle of Wight West Berkshire 2.13 13.30 Eastleigh Reading Greater

2.29 14.15

1.17 7.25

Manchester 2.83 17.68

The headline BCRs presented in Table 1 above demonstrate that: • Benefi ts outweigh costs for all schemes at 5 and 30 year time frames; and • Larger schemes in urban areas tend to show a stronger economic case than smaller schemes.

What explains these benefi ts? The benefi ts that can be robustly quantifi ed in accordance with accepted methodologies including:

• Carbon reduction as a result of reduced car use from those who have unrestricted access to a car but choose to take a ‘mixed mode’ approach to travel rather than one dominated by car use (behaviour change);

• A reduction in emissions through the use of Ultra Low Emission Vehicles which have lower emissions than the average car in the national fl eet (cleaner vehicles); and

• Specifi c health and productivity benefi ts as a result of higher than average cycle use of car club members.

• Reduction in mortality from the wider use of active travel modes as part of a mix of modes that car club usage promotes.

The fact that car clubs generate revenue and aim to be self-sustaining over the timescale of the appraisal also support their economic benefi ts; in this respect, their costs are required largely to kick-start activity. This highlights the need for well-informed feasibility and business planning to ensure that implementation is supported by a reasonable business case.

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