where there are several functions under one control, saves space compared to mechanical switches, which require separate controls for each function. Thanks to the software-based controls, the user interface can be personalised depending for example on driving mode or user profile. Also, over-the- air upgrades of functionalities will be possible after the initial setup, enabling the option for OEMs to offer advanced features after the initial purchase of the vehicle.

As CNB is carbon-based, it does not

reflect or scatter light, and it has low haze. This is especially beneficial when thinking about the display readability. Carbon also enables true black and crisp images for displays. The transparent and stretchable CNB film offers light weight with good optical properties. It can be used with plastic, glass and even leather and textiles. The 3D shapes can be added on top of displays, and the surface can be transparent or black with a decorative layer. The transparency allows the functions to be backlit, either continuously or only when needed, so remaining hidden until lit. Haptic feedback integrated into the functionalities increases the usability of the touch functions.

AUTONOMOUS DRIVING IN ANY WEATHER The material has very good electrical conductivity and it can also be used to heat up and keep Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) sensors clear. Autonomous driving requires many kinds of sensors that collect

This is how the transparent sensor layers are constructed

Panel made for Nissha. The 3D shapes are possible because CNB is stretchable

information about the surroundings. Those sensors need to be fully functional whatever the weather to be reliable. However, currently in cold or humid conditions cameras and lidars can easily be blocked by snow, ice or fog. Nowadays LED front lights are becoming the dominant choice in cars,

but do not create heat, so also suffer in poor weather conditions. CNB-based 3D-shaped heaters can be seamlessly integrated to enable even heating of the surface without local hot spots. The stretchable material can be thermoformed to any complicated shape and it can be either moulded or laminated directly to the surface enabling seamless body design as well as 360º or fish-eye views. The nanotubes and nanobuds fall in a curved and curled manner on the substrate and they slide over each other, enabling 200% stretchability and thermoforming with a 1mm radius. CNB is a new nanocarbon allotrope

discovered by the Technical University of Helsinki in 2008. It consists of a single wall carbon nanotube with covalently bonded c60-fullerene on the side. Just like its fellow nanocarbon allotropes graphene, carbon nanotubes and buckyballs, it has lots of extraordinary properties that could revolutionise many

different industries. It has taken several years

to develop the manufacturing equipment and commercialise the nanobuds. The molecules are made in a special reactor, where carbon-based gases are introduced

Concept door mock-up for Daimler

to a furnace at extreme temperatures. Inside the reactor the carbon breaks free and starts to form the CNBs. These are collected under the reactor and directly printed to the final substrate. This is called direct dry printing. The process, the synthesis and the carbon nanobud molecule itself are all patent-protected. n 13

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