Selection of Standards

for Emission Monitoring With the increasing requirement for the installation of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) it is important that capital investment is protected and that instrumentation gives reliable, meaningful and repeatable data. Fitting EN15267 approved equipment is one element but it is extremely important that the system is verifi ed. The verifi cation process requires the use of standard reference methods to underpin the data.

Standard reference methods are essential for the effective measurement and control of air pollution. Such standards are developed at National, European and world-wide level. The robustness and fi tness for purpose of these standards is a function of the accumulated expertise and experience of the people who work together in committee to produce them.

ISO standards are accepted on a case by case principle; it is not mandatory for a member country in the European Union (EU) to adopt a standard.

CEN standards must be implemented by member states of the EU. If a confl icting standard is in existence, then this must be withdrawn.

Understanding How

Standards Numbers Work Figure 1 shows how standards are adopted in the UK and published by British Standards Institute (BSI).

1. Should a standard be developed for example in the UK by BSI it will be prefi xed by BS e.g. BS 3841-1:1994 Determination of smoke emission from manufactured solid fuels for domestic use.

2. When a standard is developed and published by CEN it is prefi xed with EN and when introduced in the UK it will become a BS EN document e.g. BS EN 1911:2010 Stationary source emissions – Determination of mass concentration of gaseous chlorides expressed as HCl and as stated above any confl icting standard must be removed. A standard can be developed by CEN or ISO under a joint agreement and then it is published by CEN and ISO with a prefi x EN ISO and in the UK it then becomes an BS EN ISO prefi x e.g. BS EN ISO 23210:2009 Stationary source emissions – Determination of PM10/PM2.5 mass concentration in fl ue gas. A national foreword is added to the standard to indicate its scope of applicability and to highlight any UK specifi c concerns.

3. When a standard is developed by ISO it is prefi xed ISO and should this be adopted in the UK it becomes BS ISO e.g. BS ISO 25597:2015 Stationary source emissions – Test method for determining PM10/PM2.5 mass in stack gases using cyclone samplers and sample dilution.

Standards developed and published by CEN are generally accepted as being the most robust. However, other standards are still important, as there are substances that are not, as yet, covered by CEN Standards. The choice of the method is often dictated by the requirements of EU Directives, i.e. Industrial

6 Figure 1. Diagram of the world family of standards

Emission Directive (IED), where, for example, the use of CEN standards is mandatory. If the standard is not dictated by mandatory requirements, then monitoring standards should be used in the following order of priority as given in the European IPPC Bureau’s Reference Document ( eu/) on the General Principles of Monitoring:

1. EN standards 2. ISO standards, other international standards, national standards 3. Validated laboratory-developed and non-standard methods

The intended application of the standard method must always be taken into account; for example, a CEN method may be less suitable than another less-rigorously validated standard method if the application is not one for which the CEN method was developed.

The standards bodies have various technical committees that are responsible for the development of the standards. For emission to air the CEN committee is CEN TC 264 and for ISO is ISO TC 146 SC1.

The following is the list of current standards for emission monitoring, those highlighted are standard reference methods;

*The Environment Agency recognises that European and International standards may need supplementing by Method Implementation Documents (MIDs) to ensure they are being implemented consistently. They have established the Monitoring Certifi cation Scheme: MCERTS to deliver quality environmental measurements. Organisations wishing to include a standard in their schedule of MCERTS accreditation shall follow the requirements of the standard and, where available, the associated MID.

It may not be necessary to produce a MID for every standard but where required they will be used to supplement standards called up by Technical Guidance Note M2. MIDs provide details on how the preferred standards shall be used for regulatory monitoring.

MIDs are produced in collaboration with the Source Testing Association (STA) and its members.

Further guidance and advice.

The STA provides guidance to its membership and their clients. This includes methodology advice, guidance on equipment selection and training. Visit the STA web site for details www.s- or for any technical question contact airanswers@s-t-a. org or telephone +44(0) 1462 457535.

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