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Technical Paper and QuickShot Directory


by higher susceptibility to cracking and spalling. More investigations including extended field trials and an economic assessment of the more expensive high temperature pre-firing route would be necessary in order to finally conclude whether lower or higher pre-firing temperatures are to be recommended for purging plugs.


Based on the results of this investigation it appears to be worthwhile testing such hydratable alumina bonded corundum-spinel materials in industrial applications for steel ladle purging plugs. It would be recommended to pre-fire such hydratable alumina bonded purging plugs at temperatures of min. 1250°C to ensure sufficient strength for the application.


Acknowledgements


The authors are grateful to Almatis Qingdao for the raw materials and laboratory facilities for testing, Professor Jung In-Ho form McGill University, Canada, for the thermodynamic calculations with FactSage, Chair of Ceramics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Austria for fracture behaviour testing and University Science & Technology Beijing for SEM/EDS and XRD testing. This work is a nice example for successful scientific cooperation between industrial and academic FIRE-partners from three different continents.


References


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[2] J.U. Becker, R. Berger, A. Buhr, W.A. Rasim, H. Tiemann, Purging plugs for steel ladles-laboratory and plant results from a BOF steel plant, UNITECR1997, New Orleans, USA, 1 (1997) 143-152.


[3] E. Hiroaki, A, Keizou, T. Hiroyasu, M. Shigeru, Y. Tuyoshi, Development of long-life slit plug material for steel ladle, UNITECR1999, Berlin, Germany, (1999) 308-311.


[4] M. Zhao, Stirring units for LF/VD ladle in Baosteel, UNITECR1999, Berlin, Germany, (1999) 267-268.


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for steel


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[12] H. Hasselman. Thermal stress resistance parameters for brittle refractory ceramics: a compendium, Ceram Bull. 12(1970) 1033–1037.


[13] H. Harmuth, R.C. Bradt. Investigation of refractory brittleness by fracture mechanical and fractographic methods, Interceram (2010) 6–10.


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Ceramic Society, 83(2000) 919-927. [18] M. Göbbels, E. Woermann, J. Jung, The Al-rich part of the system CaO-Al2


-MgAl2 O4 -CaAl4 O7


[15] Slag Atlas, 2nd edition, ISBN 3-514-00457-9, Verlag Stahleisen, (1995) 104. [16] A.H. De Aza, P. Pena, A.S. De Aza, Ternary system Al2


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[19] N. Iyi, M. Göbbels, Y. Matsui, The Al-rich part of the system CaO-Al2O3-MgO, Part II: Structure Refinement of two new Magnetoplumbit-related phases, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 120(1995) 364-371.


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[21] M. Sakai, R.C. Bradt, Fracture Toughness Testing of Brittle Materials. Int. Mater. Rev, 38 (2) (1993) 53–78.


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-MgO-CaO: Part 1, primary -CaAl4


-CaO-MgO. -MgO-CaO: part ladle purging plugs in the -MgO-CaO, submitted for publication to Ceramics International


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