Nitrogen metabolism is the most important nutritional requirement of grapevines. Nothing happens without nitrogen. Grapevines cannot utilize molecular nitrogen from the air, but they can utilize either reduced nitrogen (amino nitrogen) or oxidized nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) for the synthesis of proteins and a wide range of other nitrogen- containing metabolites. An aspect of nitrogen utilization that I wasn’t aware of was the way in which polyamines, such as putrescine are involved with photosynthesis and with phytoalexin synthesis. No discussion of grape

physiology could ignore the effect of plant hormones such as abscissic acid (ABA). A chapter is devoted to the way in which ABA affects berry ripening, with further discussion of auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins. There is an interesting chapter on stilbene synthesis. Stilbenes are phytoalexins and their synthesis is triggered by a long list of bacterial, fungal, or chemical or environmental factors.

Further chapters deal with the synthesis of flavour compounds. The last several chapters deal with in vitro cultivation of grapes, and then genetic engineering of grapes to impart resistance to pathogens and to other stresses such as salinity and drought. The last two chapters deal with genetic mapping.

This is a comprehensive text for those who require in depth knowledge of the biochemistry and physiology of grapes.

Looking Back

This architectural rendering of proposed new aquatic facilities appeared in the program for the 1949 Kelowna International Regatta.

By Wayne Wilson P

ioneer settlers, in general, have found a strong need to bring objects, attitudes and activities that help make them feel more at home in their new landscape. Those pioneers find it easier to re-make their inner landscapes —that is, the insides of their homes, their landscape tastes, and the rhythms and patterns of activities of the home life. The outward expression of their older and more distant homes were sometimes more difficult to remake.

In the Okanagan Valley, the census of Canada for 1901 and 1911 put cultural background of the residents as being from the United Kingdom for roughly 80 percent of the population! Given this large percentage, it is probably not surprising that those people would gather together at some point to help remake their wider landscape based on their own cultural preferences. Accordingly, we see street names and place names taking on a distinctly UK look and feel. In

addition, much of the capital needed to

finance the development of the orchards came from UK backers.

Another example of this kind of cultural remaking of place was the Kelowna Regatta. While many of the new orcharding communities up and down the Okanagan Valley held Regattas of one manner or another, it was the Kelowna International Regatta that seemed to take on a life of its own from its very beginnings just after Kelowna was incorporated in 1905.

For decades the popular summer event brought out competitors and entertainers from far and wide. The small regatta building was expanded, and over those years the grandstands grew to accommodate larger audiences.

By the boom years just after World War II, there was clearly an appetite for a set of new Regatta facilities. The architectural rendering here is just one of the proposals put forward, this one appearing in the 1949 Regatta program.

In the end, the community and city settled on more modest renovations to existing structures that held the events and visitors for another 20 years. At that time disaster struck and, in the summer of 1969, the entire regatta facilities and grandstands burned to the ground. The facilities were never rebuilt.

Indeed, it may be fair to say that, without a home, the Kelowna International Regatta began to fade and by the 1980s it was largely gone from the summer activities of the Okanagan Valley.

— Wayne Wilson is the former executive-director of the Orchard Industry Museum and the B.C. Wine Museum.

British Columbia FRUIT GROWER • Summer 2017 29

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