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When matching pitches, students can use: Boom Whackers®, reso- nator bells, and ChromaNote Handbells™. Additionally, colored circles can be taped over keyboards, pianos, or Orff xylophones. This would represent Level One of Melodic Notation. For students who are able to read rhythmic notation, a com-


bined approach can be introduced for students who are ready for Level Two of Melodic Notation. A simple melody can be written using the rainbow schemed approach, with the solfege syllables writ- ten below. Moreover, the outside of each rhythmic value can still incorporate the original Rhythmic Notation colors, to help students discriminate between each rhythmic value. Once students have an understanding where the different


pitches are located on the staff and their instrument, Level Three would simply take the colors away. In this example, students would be reading black and white melodic notation with the solfege syl- lables written below. Lastly, Level Four would be to take the solfege syllables away. In this example, students are now reading traditional melodic notation.


As with Rhythmic Notation, this is a differentiated system in which students first apply a foundational baseline, which is where students are connecting colors with pitches. Gradually, students will take skills learned from Rhythmic Notation and apply it to Melod- ic Notation, through the use of color-coding and solfege syllables. Gradually, as students move up the levels, they will take some aspect away to allow more independence. As mentioned earlier, some stu- dents might only plateau at a certain level. Nevertheless, through differentiation and adaptation, you are allowing each student to be able to be successful. (Fig. 3) shows an example of the Four-Leveled Melodic Notation System.


(Fig. 3)


Conclusion Special learners are a valued member of every learning environ-


ment. Special learners include: students who receive special educa- tion services; students who are gifted and talented, students who are classified as at-risk; or ENL. Moreover, all types of learners are found in the music classroom, including: general/core music, instrumental, and choral settings. As teaching students to read music is a large aspect of all musi-


cal settings, new strategies need to be approached in order to allow all types of learners to be successful. Differentiation, adaptation, and modification are three words that can allow all types of learners to have the chance to read music. Through incorporating multiple mo- dalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile), new ways to approach music literacy can be found. “This step-by-step, audio-visual-tactile- kinesthetic approach to learning musical notation establishes a rela- tionship between musical sound discrimination and the tonality of speech in song and literacy.” (Sobol, 2008) Two such examples are the Four-Leveled Rhythmic Notation


System, and the Four-Leveled Melodic Notation System. In both ex- amples, a variety of ways can be introduced to allow student success when reading music. Through incorporating color-coding, iconic images, and visual connections, all students can find an entry point into music notation, which will allow them to leave the music room with higher success than beforehand.


References


Adamer, M. S. (January, 2001) “Meeting Special Needs in Music Class,” in Music Educators Journal, 87, 26.


Hammel, A. J. & Hourigan, R. M. (2011). Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs: A Label Free Approach. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 79, 127 & 171.


Hourigan, R. & Hourigan, A. (September, 2009) “Teaching Music to Children with Autism: Understandings and Perspectives,” in Music Educators Journal, 96, 44.


Sobol, E.S. (2008). An Attitude and Approach for Teaching Music to Special Learners, 2nd


Littlefield Education in partnership with the National Association of Music Education, 35 & 41.


Woolfolk, A. (2004). Educational Psychology, 9th MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 212.


Edition. Boston, Edition. Lanham, MD: Rowan;


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