This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
sembly. Direct metal printing more than halved lead times, from as long as eight weeks to two or three, while the cost per part dropped from $250-$1,500 to $25-$150. Laser powder forming is an addi-


tive manufacturing technology that uses a metal powder injected into a molten pool created by a high power laser beam. T e process can go from metal and


metal oxide powder to metal parts, in many cases without any secondary operations. Metal powder is applied only where material is being added to the part at that moment and has primary applications in repair and overhaul, rapid prototyping, rapid manufacturing, and limited-run manufacturing for aerospace, defense, and medical markets. T e technology covers several


alloys, including titanium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other specialty


materials. Mechanical testing reveals outstanding as-fabricated mechanical properties T is process holds oppor- tunities for die and tooling repair.


Competing Considerations


T e design freedoms associated with building something layer by layer is the biggest advantage of additive manufacturing. Cavities, internal pas- sages and other complex features can be designed directly into the compo- nent, without as much consideration for the manufacturing method and/or secondary machining. “Additive manufacturing can resolve


a lot of constraints in traditional manufacturing,” said Andrew Snow, senior VP, EOS of North America Inc. “You can reduce part numbers through design, you can reduce weight by get- ting rid of unnecessary material, you can produce fully customized parts for on-demand-type applications.”


Additionally, 3-D-printed metal


components do not require gating or risers and can be produced without upfront investments in tooling. If a small number of parts are needed quickly, they can be printed and shipped in a matter of days, thanks to a reduction in up-front work necessary to manufacture the part. “In direct metal printing, you don’t


have to worry about designing gating and risering. You are just printing the part,” Potts said. “If you’re going to pour metal into a mold, you have to go through quite a bit of engineering to make sure you’ll get a sound casting. But with metal printing, you don’t re- ally have that early work.” While engineers are afforded


Sleep Easy!


design freedoms not seen in other manufacturing processes, includ- ing metalcasting, production speeds have hampered the technology’s ability to produce large amounts of components in a relatively short time. The sheer time needed to build a metal part layer-by-layer is the biggest driver of cost. “T e two major cost drivers solely


in printing parts—not post machining, heat treating, etc.—are materials and machine costs,” Ewan said. “Materials are a factor, but a relatively small one. What the cost really comes from is the time to run the machine.” A component’s design can improve


Your casting order is in great hands


For over 140 years, OSCO has provided quality castings and related services on-time, to spec at great prices. Our dependability and worry-free performance has kept our customers coming back job after job. Let OSCO make your product great and your job easier. Scan the code below to learn more about us.


Green Sand, Disamatic, Osborn and Hunter molding in medium to high production. Gray iron, class 25, 30 & 35, up to 40 lbs.


ISO 9002 Certified


Portsmouth, OH 45662-1388 s www.oscoind.com


INDUSTRIES, INC. Contact: Tom Kayser 34 | METAL CASTING DESIGN & PURCHASING | May/Jun 2015


effi ciency; by decreasing a build’s height, the 3-D printer can complete the layering process more quickly. But the technology is not at a point where it can produce production parts in the hundreds or thousands. It has been a commercially viable short-run production method for a half-decade, but larger volumes will require faster printers with larger build boxes. For the powder bed fusion print-


ing process, the build box off ers another constraint. T e laser is fi xed and then steered to the powder bed with mirrors. T e beam can experi- ence problems when it is redirected farther and farther from the center of the build box. T ese complications can lead to components that are out of tolerance, variances in the laser’s energy and other complications. Cur- rently, powder bed fusion is restricted


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60