This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Psychological Assessment


Another test that has strong predictive accuracy in the detection of malingering is the Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). Tis has the advantage of acting as what is widely accepted to be a culture-free measure of general intellectual ability but can also be used as a means of detecting sub- optimal effort.


An expert opinion that an individual is malingering can have major consequences in legal settings. Terefore caution should be used in using the term ‘malingering’. Tere is common consensus that use of this term should not be based on testing alone, but should be placed in the context of all relevant collateral information. Assessment should include consideration of the following factors:


• Inconsistencies between neuropsychological domains (e.g. impaired attention but normal memory)


• Inconsistencies between neuropsychological test scores and the suspected aetiology of any brain dysfunction (e.g. normal IQ and memory scores in alleged hypoxic brain injury)


• Inconsistencies between the neuropsychological test scores and the medical evidence regarding severity of injury (e.g. low test scores more commonly associated with coma rather than no loss


of consciousness)


• Inconsistencies between the neuropsychological test scores and behavioural presentation (e.g. being able to offer autobiographical information whilst failing tests of recent and remote


memory) Traumatic brain injury and the impact on behaviour


Behavioural sequelae of prior head injury include deficits in executive functioning, sometimes also called dysexecutive syndrome. However, this may be a feature of an individual’s presentation in a number of different disorders, including diffuse traumatic brain injury, (non-organic) personality disorder, depression, and paranoid schizophrenia amongst other conditions.


Executive functioning refers to an individual’s ability to manage situations that involve planning or decision-making, error correction or troubleshooting, in situations where responses are not already well learned or which contain novel sequences of actions, and in situations which either require the overcoming of a strong habitual response, or resistance to temptation. Deficits in this area of mental process may frequently be seen among offenders, and it will be important for the court to understand not only whether it originates in organic or non-organic disorder, and if the latter whether it reflects solely personality disorder, but also the scale of the impairment.


Several measures exist to assist in understanding the nature and magnitude of executive functioning impairment. Te most robustly and best normed are:


• Te Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) • Te Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test • Te Controlled Oral Word Association Test (often called FAS) • Te Reitan Trail Making Test


41


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156