Often these drivers combine and interact. Concerns about the effects of climate change, for example, including crop vulnerability and food insecurity, gave rise to climate policies that included mandates to increase biofuel production, such as ethanol and bio-diesel.
Some direct and indirect drivers can be controlled through action that brings direct benefits to human well-being. For example, increasing energy efficiency to reduce GHG emissions also reduces air pollution and its risks to human health, while reducing consumer energy costs and increasing energy security.
Because of the rapid growth in drivers, the complexity of their patterns and dynamics, and their ability to generate unexpected impacts, improved efforts in surveillance and monitoring the drivers may produce tangible benefits. When basic environmental, social and economic data are available and integrated it becomes feasible to assess the possible environmental impacts of drivers effectively.