1. Immediately designate new areas for REDD+. Tese forest- ed areas should be selected taking into account the multiple benefits for carbon storage and sequestration and their role in conserving orangutan habitat and/or other biodiversity and for the protection of ecosystem services such as those derived from watersheds, ensuring water supply and quality for irriga- tion and food security as well as urban and rural populations.
2. Strengthen integrated spatial land use planning across ministries and at the regional, provincial and national level by maintaining a master spatial planning database or map containing defined boundaries of protected forests or for- ests included in protection schemes whether under REDD or for other purposes.
3. Streamline the spatial planning framework to integrate various levels of government processes and to ensure that there exists only a single legally binding spatial plan with clearly defined land uses while registering all planned land use change activities onto the same master map and pro- hibiting those activities not registered.
4. Focus further resource development including the planned expansion of oil palm plantations on low current use value lands by taking into account all social and environmental im-
plications and avoid agricultural and timber concessions on high conservation value lands. Designated areas should be reflected in the master map.
5. Improve ecosystem valuation studies based on quantified ecosystem services data and establish income-generating alternatives for existing and new areas that are important for biodiversity and ecosystem services protection.
6. Build on experience gained elsewhere in Indonesia with a broad-based ‘rewards’ approach and building on PES schemes from countries such as Costa Rica. Between the commodification, compensation and co-investment para- digms of PES schemes, an appropriate combination needs to be selected to effectively control illegal resource depletion, compensate voluntary efforts to forego resource depletion rights and invest in lucrative Green Economy alternatives.
7. Support and develop a specific REDD-related programme between relevant UN agencies, INTERPOL, existing initia- tives such as the FLEGT and including but not limited to the appropriate Indonesian authorities and authorities in other relevant countries to address and identify key areas and measures to reduce illegal logging and trade, including the transnational organized nature of illegal logging.