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POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGY


Hybridisation in Volume


The future mix of powertrain systems to meet differing global demands puts a high emphasis on the need for high volume hybrid motor production.


D


rivetrain technology in the automotive market is undergoing significant change as the need for electrification takes off and


manufacturers are planning production for the boom in fully electric and hybrid vehicles over the next 12 years. Power train specialist, Schaeffler says that in order to achieve the ambitious Paris climate targets, new technologies in the powertrains of vehicles will be required in the future. However, it is not enough to restrict developments to highly efficient electric drives. Calculations carried out by Schaeffler show that almost 30 per cent of newly manufactured passenger cars will be driven by purely electric powertrains by 2030. Yet at the same time, another 40 per cent of all new vehicles will be equipped with a hybrid drive, with the internal combustion engine and the transmission being its key components. Even in more than ten years’ time, cars that are powered purely by internal combustion engines will account for another 30 per cent of the global market.


MILD HYBRID DOMINANCE Schaeffler is expecting particularly strong market growth for mild hybrid vehicles that are powered by a 48-Volt on-board electric subsystem. In 2030, annual production of around 20 million units is expected for so-called P0 drives, in which the electric motor is connected to the crankshaft of the internal combustion engine via a belt. This type of belt-driven starter generator makes it possible to recuperate a large proportion of the kinetic energy that is otherwise lost when braking. A small and thus cost effective lithium-ion battery is used for energy storage. The recuperated energy can be utilised for


10 /// Automotive Test & Validation 2018


restarting the engine in start-stop or sailing mode, as well as for additional acceleration. In order to ensure that operating modes can change dynamically, Schaeffler has developed electrically- actuated active belt tensioners. 48-Volt systems will also increasingly be applied in other positions in hybridised powertrains in the years to come. The objective here is to boost the electrical output to above 20kW and improve the overall efficiency and emission behaviour of drives further. The arrangement of the 48- Volt electric motor on the crankshaft as a P1 hybrid module provides a ratio-free link to the internal combustion engine speed.


ENERGY RECUPERATION


❱ ❱ Electrically actuated active belt tensioners will ensure that drive train operating modes can change dynamically in hybrid vehicles.


Recuperation and fuel-saving driving strategies are even more efficient with a P2 hybrid module on a 48-Volt basis that is fitted between the internal combustion engine and the transmission. For front-transverse drives with a small axial design envelope, Schaeffler has developed a variant with an arrangement parallel to the axle that acts on the transmission input shaft via a belt or chain drive. In addition to recuperating braking energy, this


system allows electric driving at low speeds, such as in traffic jams and while parking and manoeuvring. Additionally, the 48-Volt hybrid module assists in accelerating and fuel-saving sailing, which means that the vehicle rolls freely with the internal combustion engine switched off and decoupled from the drive train. Whatever the mix of vehicle drive types on offer within the next decade, electric motors will nonetheless play a significant role in providing the fuel efficiencies required in hybrid systems whilst providing the necessary power delivery in a range of different driving situations.


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