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FEED ADDITIVES ▶▶▶


The effects of herbal extracts on combating Newcastle disease


Newcastle disease (ND) is an important infectious disease in poultry. Herbal medicines are being used as immunomodulators and are a potential alternative for convential therapies.


BY AMIRI A. A., MAKIAN DAM PARS CO., RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPART- MENT, TEHRAN, IRAN


E


12 10 8 6 4 2 0


Control


chinacea purpurea is one of the most promising phy- togenic additives due to its immuno-stimulatory and potentiatory properties. Echinacea stimulates mac- rophages, cytokine production, natural killer (NK)


cells, neutrophil and Blymphocyte activity. Glycrrhiza glabra (licorice) and its extracts have anti-inflammatory, immuno- modulatory and antiviral functions, so they can augment the immunity of poultry by modulating both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, prevent viral diseases, and provide supplementary treatment for viral diseases. Propolis, is a resinous material collected by bees from the buds and ex- udates of plants, which is transformed in the presence of bee enzymes. Propolis contains a variety of chemical compounds


Figure 1 - Antibody titers means against Newcastle. IM: intramuscular challenged by virulent ND virus, C: Contact challenged by virulent ND virus.


Vaccine (IM) Vaccine (C) Vaccine + Immuno Propophyt (IM) Vaccine + Immuno Propophyt (C)


such as polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, cafeic acid and their related esters, which possess anti-bacterial, antifun- gal, antiviral, antioxidant, hepato-protective and immu- no-stimulating properties. The knowledge of propolis mecha- nisms of action on the immune system has advanced in recent years. Many studies have demonstrated that propolis increase macrophage activity, enhances the lytic activity of natural killer cells and stimulates higher antibody production. In this study we evaluated the effects of a natural herbal medicine on the immune response in chickens.


4 DOA 21 DOA 28 DOA 35 DOA 42 DOA


The study A total of 60 one-day-old commercial chicks were randomly divided into six groups. Birds in groups A and B were treated with a natural herbal medicine including Echinacea, Licorice and Propolis extracts (250 ml/1000 L DW) from 5 to 45 days of age. Groups A to D were immunized against Newcastle Dis- ease (ND) via live bivalent B1-H120 (spray) on day 1, inactived bivalent ND+AI (intramuscular) and clone-selected Lasota strain (eye drop) on day 8, Lasota (drinking water) on day 18 and IBD (in drinking water) on days 16 and 23. Groups E and F were assigned as a control group and did not receive any treatment or vaccine. All groups were challenged by APMV-1/Chicken/Amol/01/2019 as a virulent ND virus (vNDV) with ICPI=1.9 at 35 days of age. Groups A, C and E were chal- lenged by intramuscular and groups B, D and F by contact routes. Blood samples were collected at 4, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and the antibody response to NDV was deter- mined using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To evalu- ate the protection level and virulent virus shedding rate, cloa- cal and tracheal swabs were collected from all groups at 3, 7 and 10 days after challenge. Virus detection was performed via a RT-PCR technique using Kant (1997) primers, after RNA extraction from samples.


▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 28, No. 3, 2020 21


Antibody Titer


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