Other than bupivacaine as noted above, EXPAREL should not be admixed with other drugs prior to administration.
Water and Hypotonic Agents Brief Summary (For full prescribing information refer to package insert)
INDICATIONS AND USAGE EXPAREL is indicated for single-dose infiltration in adults to produce postsurgical local analgesia and as an interscalene brachial plexus nerve block to produce postsurgical regional analgesia.
Limitation of Use: Safety and efficacy has not been established in other nerve blocks.
CONTRAINDICATIONS EXPAREL is contraindicated in obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. While EXPAREL has not been tested with this technique, the use of bupivacaine HCl with this technique has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Warnings and Precautions Specific for EXPAREL
As there is a potential risk of severe life-threatening adverse effects associated with the administration of bupivacaine, EXPAREL should be administered in a setting where trained personnel and equipment are available to promptly treat patients who show evidence of neurological or cardiac toxicity.
Caution should be taken to avoid accidental intravascular injection of EXPAREL. Convulsions and cardiac arrest have occurred following accidental intravascular injection of bupivacaine and other amide-containing products.
Avoid additional use of local anesthetics within 96 hours following administration of EXPAREL.
EXPAREL has not been evaluated for the following uses and, therefore, is not recommended for these types of analgesia or routes of administration.
• epidural • intrathecal • regional nerve blocks other than interscalene brachial plexus nerve block • intravascular or intra-articular use
EXPAREL has not been evaluated for use in the following patient population and, therefore, it is not recommended for administration to these groups.
• patients younger than 18 years old • pregnant patients
The potential sensory and/or motor loss with EXPAREL is temporary and varies in degree and duration depending on the site of injection and dosage administered and may last for up to 5 days as seen in clinical trials.
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trial Experience
Adverse Reactions Reported in Local Infiltration Clinical Studies
The safety of EXPAREL was evaluated in 10 randomized, double-blind, local administration into the surgical site clinical studies involving 823 patients undergoing various surgical procedures. Patients were administered a dose ranging from 66 to 532 mg of EXPAREL. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%) following EXPAREL administration were nausea, constipation, and vomiting. The common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 2% to less than 10%) following EXPAREL administration were pyrexia, dizziness, edema peripheral, anemia, hypotension, pruritus, tachycardia, headache, insomnia, anemia postoperative, muscle spasms, hemorrhagic anemia, back pain, somnolence, and procedural pain.
Adverse Reactions Reported in Nerve Block Clinical Studies
The safety of EXPAREL was evaluated in four randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled nerve block clinical studies involving 469 patients undergoing various surgical procedures. Patients were administered a dose of either 133 or 266 mg of EXPAREL. In these studies, the most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%) following EXPAREL administration were nausea, pyrexia, and constipation.
The common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 2% to less than 10%) following EXPAREL administration as a nerve block were muscle twitching, dysgeusia, urinary retention, fatigue, headache, confusional state, hypotension, hypertension, hypoesthesia oral, pruritus generalized, hyperhid- rosis, tachycardia, sinus tachycardia, anxiety, fall, body temperature increased, edema peripheral, sensory loss, hepatic enzyme increased, hiccups, hypoxia, post-procedural hematoma.
These adverse reactions are consistent with those observed in clinical studies and most commonly involve the following system organ classes (SOCs): Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications (e.g., drug-drug interaction, procedural pain), Nervous System Disorders (e.g., palsy, seizure), General Disorders And Administration Site Conditions (e.g., lack of efficacy, pain), Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders (e.g., erythema, rash), and Cardiac Disorders (e.g., bradycardia, cardiac arrest).
The toxic effects of local anesthetics are additive and their co-administration should be used with caution including monitoring for neurologic and cardio- vascular effects related to local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Avoid additional use of local anesthetics within 96 hours following administration of EXPAREL.
Patients who are administered local anesthetics may be at increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia when concurrently exposed to the following drugs, which could include other local anesthetics:
Examples of Drugs Associated with Methemoglobinemia: Class
Anticonvulsants Other drugs Bupivacaine
nitric oxide, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, nitrous oxide
Local anesthetics articaine, benzocaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, procaine, ropivacaine, tetracaine
cyclophosphamide, flutamide, hydroxyurea, ifosfamide, rasburicase
dapsone, nitrofurantoin, para-aminosalicylic acid, sulfonamides
chloroquine, primaquine Phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate acetaminophen, metoclopramide, quinine, sulfasalazine
Bupivacaine HCl administered together with EXPAREL may impact the phar- macokinetic and/or physicochemical properties of EXPAREL, and this effect is concentration dependent. Therefore, bupivacaine HCl and EXPAREL may be administered simultaneously in the same syringe, and bupivacaine HCl may be injected immediately before EXPAREL as long as the ratio of the milligram dose of bupivacaine HCl solution to EXPAREL does not exceed 1:2.
Non-bupivacaine Local Anesthetics
EXPAREL should not be admixed with local anesthetics other than bupivacaine. Nonbupivacaine based local anesthetics, including lidocaine, may cause an immediate release of bupivacaine from EXPAREL if administered together locally. The administration of EXPAREL may follow the administration of lidocaine after a delay of 20 minutes or more. There are no data to support administration of other local anesthetics prior to administration of EXPAREL.
Do not dilute EXPAREL with water or other hypotonic agents, as it will result in disruption of the liposomal particles USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy Risk Summary
There are no studies conducted with EXPAREL in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal deaths were observed with subcutaneous administration of bupivacaine to rabbits during organogenesis at a dose equivalent to 1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 266 mg. Subcutaneous administration of bupivacaine to rats from implanta- tion through weaning produced decreased pup survival at a dose equivalent to 1.5 times the MRHD [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risks to a fetus.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2-4% and of miscarriage is 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
Clinical Considerations Labor or Delivery
Bupivacaine is contraindicated for obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. While EXPAREL has not been studied with this technique, the use of bupivacaine for obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death.
Bupivacaine can rapidly cross the placenta, and when used for epidural, caudal, or pudendal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal, and neonatal toxicity. The incidence and degree of toxicity depend upon the procedure performed, the type, and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus, and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function.
Data Animal Data
Bupivacaine hydrochloride was administered subcutaneously to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis (implantation to closure of the hard plate). Rat doses were 4.4, 13.3, and 40 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 0.2, 0.5 and 1.5 times the MRHD, respectively, based on the BSA comparisons and a 60 kg human weight) and rabbit doses were 1.3, 5.8, and 22.2 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 times the MRHD, respectively, based on the BSA comparisons and a 60 kg human weight). No embryo-fetal effects were observed in rats at the doses tested with the high dose causing increased maternal lethality. An increase in embryo-fetal deaths was observed in rabbits at the high dose in the absence of maternal toxicity.
Decreased pup survival was noted at 1.5 times the MRHD in a rat pre- and post-natal development study when pregnant animals were administered subcutaneous doses of 4.4, 13.3, and 40 mg/kg/day buprenorphine hydrochloride (equivalent to 0.2, 0.5 and 1.5 times the MRHD, respectively, based on the BSA comparisons and a 60 kg human weight) from implantation through weaning (during pregnancy and lactation).
Lactation Risk Summary
Limited published literature reports that bupivacaine and its metabolite, pipecoloxylidide, are present in human milk at low levels. There is no available information on effects of the drug in the breastfed infant or effects of the drug on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for EXPAREL and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from EXPAREL or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use
Of the total number of patients in the EXPAREL local infiltration clinical studies (N=823), 171 patients were greater than or equal to 65 years of age and 47 patients were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. Of the total number of patients in the EXPAREL nerve block clinical studies (N=531), 241 patients were greater than or equal to 65 years of age and 60 patients were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. Clinical experience with EXPAREL has not identified differences in efficacy or safety between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Amide-type local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine, are metabolized by the liver. Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at a greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations, and potentially local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Therefore, consider increased monitoring for local anesthetic systemic toxicity in subjects with moderate to severe hepatic disease.
Bupivacaine is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. This should be considered when performing dose selection of EXPAREL.
OVERDOSAGE Clinical Presentation
Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma concentrations encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended intravascular injection of local anesthetic solution.
Signs and symptoms of overdose include CNS symptoms (perioral paresthesia, dizziness, dysarthria, confusion, mental obtundation, sensory and visual disturbances and eventually convulsions) and cardiovascular effects (that range from hypertension and tachycardia to myocardial depression, hypotension, bradycardia and asystole).
Plasma levels of bupivacaine associated with toxicity can vary. Although concentrations of 2,500 to 4,000 ng/mL have been reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity, symptoms of toxicity have been reported at levels as low as 800 ng/mL.
Management of Local Anesthetic Overdose At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.
The first step in the management of convulsions, as well as underventilation or apnea, consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circula- tion should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously. The clinician should be familiar, prior to the use of anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs. Supportive treatment of
circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor dictated by the clinical situation (such as ephedrine to enhance myocardial contractile force).
If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted.
Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, maybe indicated, after initial administration of oxygen by mask, if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Important Dosage and Administration Information • EXPAREL is intended for single-dose administration only.
• Different formulations of bupivacaine are not bioequivalent even if the milligram strength is the same. Therefore, it is not possible to convert dosing from any other formulations of bupivacaine to EXPAREL.
• DO NOT dilute EXPAREL with water for injection or other hypotonic agents, as it will result in disruption of the liposomal particles.
• Use suspensions of EXPAREL diluted with preservative-free normal (0.9%) saline for injection or lactated Ringer’s solution within 4 hours of preparation in a syringe.
• Do not administer EXPAREL if it is suspected that the vial has been frozen or exposed to high temperature (greater than 40°C or 104°F) for an extended period.
• Inspect EXPAREL visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not administer EXPAREL if the product is discolored.
Recommended Dosing in Adults Local Analgesia via Infiltration
The recommended dose of EXPAREL for local infiltration in adults is up to a maximum dose of 266mg (20 mL), and is based on the following factors: • Size of the surgical site • Volume required to cover the area
• Individual patient factors that may impact the safety of an amide local anesthetic
As general guidance in selecting the proper dosing, two examples of infiltration dosing are provided:
• In patients undergoing bunionectomy, a total of 106 mg (8 mL) of EXPAREL was administered with 7 mL infiltrated into the tissues surrounding the osteotomy, and 1 mL infiltrated into the subcutaneous tissue.
• In patients undergoing hemorrhoidectomy, a total of 266 mg (20 mL) of EXPAREL was diluted with 10 mL of saline, for a total of 30 mL, divided into six 5 mL aliquots, injected by visualizing the anal sphincter as a clock face and slowly infiltrating one aliquot to each of the even numbers to produce a field block.
Regional Analgesia via Interscalene Brachial Plexus Nerve Block
The recommended dose of EXPAREL for interscalene brachial plexus nerve block in adults is 133 mg (10 mL), and is based upon one study of patients undergoing either total shoulder arthroplasty or rotator cuff repair.
Admixing EXPAREL with drugs other than bupivacaine HCl prior to administra- tion is not recommended.
• Non-bupivacaine based local anesthetics, including lidocaine, may cause an immediate release of bupivacaine from EXPAREL if administered together locally. The administration of EXPAREL may follow the administration of lidocaine after a delay of 20 minutes or more.
• Bupivacaine HCl administered together with EXPAREL may impact the pharmacokinetic and/or physicochemical properties of EXPAREL, and this effect is concentration dependent. Therefore, bupivacaine HCl and EXPAREL may be administered simultaneously in the same syringe, and bupivacaine HCl may be injected immediately before EXPAREL as long as the ratio of the milligram dose of bupivacaine HCl solution to EXPAREL does not exceed 1:2.
The toxic effects of these drugs are additive and their administration should be used with caution including monitoring for neurologic and cardiovascular effects related to local anesthetic systemic toxicity.
• When a topical antiseptic such as povidone iodine (e.g., Betadine®) is applied, the site should be allowed to dry before EXPAREL is administered into the surgical site. EXPAREL should not be allowed to come into contact with antiseptics such as povidone iodine in solution.
Studies conducted with EXPAREL demonstrated that the most common implantable materials (polypropylene, PTFE, silicone, stainless steel, and titanium) are not affected by the presence of EXPAREL any more than they are by saline. None of the materials studied had an adverse effect on EXPAREL.
Non-Interchangeability with Other Formulations of Bupivacaine
Different formulations of bupivacaine are not bioequivalent even if the milligram dosage is the same. Therefore, it is not possible to convert dosing from any other formulations of bupivacaine to EXPAREL and vice versa.
Liposomal encapsulation or incorporation in a lipid complex can substantially affect a drug’s functional properties relative to those of the unencapsulated or nonlipid-associated drug. In addition, different liposomal or lipid-complexed products with a common active ingredient may vary from one another in the chemical composition and physical form of the lipid component. Such differences may affect functional properties of these drug products. Do not substitute.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacokinetics
Administration of EXPAREL results in significant systemic plasma levels of bupivacaine which can persist for 96 hours after local infiltration and 120 hours after interscalene brachial plexus nerve block. In general, peripheral nerve blocks have shown systemic plasma levels of bupivacaine for extended duration when compared to local infiltration. Systemic plasma levels of bupivacaine following administration of EXPAREL are not correlated with local efficacy.
Inform patients that use of local anesthetics may cause methemoglobinemia, a serious condition that must be treated promptly. Advise patients or caregivers to seek immediate medical attention if they or someone in their care experience the following signs or symptoms: pale, gray, or blue colored skin (cyanosis); headache; rapid heart rate; shortness of breath; lightheadedness; or fatigue.
Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc. San Diego, CA 92121 USA Patent Numbers: 6,132,766
Trademark of Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc. For additional information call 1-855-RX-EXPAREL (1-855-793-9727) Rx only
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