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engineering of the refractory microstructure and of the bounding phases constituting the matrix.


Refrax® PRO (Figure 9) shows the first matrix improvement with the modification of the matrix towards the formation of Si2


ON2 α-Si3 N4 . Si2 ON2 phase instead phase is characterized by a large plate-like structure, with


a lower reactive surface, thus enhancing the resistance to oxidation. This effect is increased with Refrax® PLUS with the addition of a specific additive that promotes the formation of both Si2


ON2 and β-Si3 N4 .


Figure 10: SEM microstructures Refrax® TOP (core) and Refrax® PLUS (glazed surface)


Concerning Refrax® TOP, thanks to its special additives and a second firing process, a glazed phase is generated at the surface, which closes the material porosity and acts as physical barrier to corrosive media. Refrax® TOP is preferred in areas where ash or slag adhesion is a problem or where high corrosion is apparent.


Figure 9: SEM microstructure Refrax® PRO (Left) and Refrax® PLUS (Right)


As highlighted, refractories have to be carefully designed to ensure a safe, reliable and efficient performance of the WtE unit. The resistance to high temperature oxidation, which is one of the main phenomena leading to material corrosion in incinerators, is the refractory’s key property whatever


Technical Paper


a) Comparison of the change in volume for the different SiC materials during steam oxidation tests


b) Comparison of the change in volume for the different SiC materials during steam oxidation tests (zoom)


c) Comparison of the mass variation for the different SiC materials during steam oxidation tests


d) Comparison of the open porosity evolution for the different SiC materials during steam oxidation tests


Graph 4: Comparison of the volume change, mass variation and open porosity evolution for the 4 different SiC products during steam oxidation tests- 1000°C January 2019 Issue ENGINEER THE REFRACTORIES


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