Lining Tec offer services in the following areas of expertise, of which they have an extensive know-how and experience.

The renewals offered significantly reduce costs and the need for maintenance.

Refractory linings of CFB boilers Over the past 25 years Lining Tec

of refractory linings have

gained expertise and experience from the implementation


approximately 20 boilers in Europe and Asia. Lining Tec are familiar with the problems in refractory linings of CFB boilers and know-how to eliminate them.

Refractory linings of step grates

Step grates are used in BFB and CFB boilers in recycling

fuel applications, biomass and

waste fuel combustion applications and other applications where a large amount of ash and unburnt waste are formed. The erosive wear of grid nozzles can be prevented with carefully selected protective bricks, the design related to them, and their careful installation. With expertise in and experience of step grates and

the material selections for them with several boilers in Europe and Southeast Asia.

Other energy industry plants

In addition, they operate in the roles of specialist, designer, and executor in various energy production plants working with, for example, BFB boilers and grate boilers – as well as with pyrolysis, waste incineration and burner equipment.

Development is necessary

What will be developed are the structures, methods and materials in the context of refractory linings, so that the operating time of the linings increases and the need for maintenance and renewal decreases. In the energy sector, the changes related to refractory linings can be seen, for example, in the ways listed.

Cyclical use of boilers

Changes will be seen especially in power boilers. Instead of generating a steady load, these are plants with peak loads, which means the power of the boiler is regulated according to the load. This means the boilers are used cyclically, and, thus, the repeated temperature changes stress

the refractory lining considerably more than in boilers with a steady load.

The elimination of erosive wear of refractory lining in CFB boilers The erosive wear of materials caused by burning gases, ash and sand in the gas flows can be prevented by selecting better materials for the most demanding areas, such as the cyclone target area in CFB boilers.

Challenging fuels

Replacing coal with different kinds of bio fuels and the use of recycled wood and fuel from municipal waste is increasing in CFB boilers and other boilers. With better brickwork design and material selections, the

stress caused

by fuels can be considered, which decreases the breaking of linings and the need for maintenance.

Burner solutions for wood dust

Wood pellets can be used as fuel in boiler burners so that the pellets are crushed to dust before burning. The design, material selections and installation of refractory linings for this kind of burner require special expertise and know- how.

Global crude steel production reached 1,808.6 million tonnes (Mt) for the year 2018, up by 4.6% compared to 2017. Crude steel production increased in all regions in 2018 except in the EU, which saw a 0.3% contraction.

GLOBAL CRUDE STEEL OUTPUT INCREASES BY 4.6% IN 2018 Annual crude steel production (in million tonnes)


Asia produced 1,271.1 Mt of crude steel in 2018, an increase of 5.6% compared to 2017. China’s crude steel production in 2018 reached 928.3 Mt, up by 6.6% on 2017. China’s share of global crude steel production increased from 50.3% in 2017 to 51.3% in 2018. India’s crude steel production for 2018 was 106.5 Mt, up by 4.9% on 2017, meaning India has replaced Japan as the world’s second largest steel producing country. Japan produced 104.3 Mt in 2018, down 0.3% compared to 2017. South Korea produced 72.5 Mt of crude steel in 2018, an increase of 2.0% compared to 2017.

The EU produced 168.1 Mt of crude steel in 2018, a decrease of 0.3% compared to 2017. Germany produced 42.4 Mt of crude steel in 2018, a decrease of 2.0% on 2017. Italy produced 24.5 Mt in 2018, up by 1.7% on 2017. France produced 15.4 Mt of crude steel, a decrease of 0.7% on 2017. Spain produced 14.3 Mt of crude steel in 2018, a decrease of 0.1% on 2017.


Company News



0 2011 2012 2013 World 2014 2015 Rest of World 2016 China 2017 2018

Crude steel production in North America was 120.5 Mt in 2018, 4.1% higher than in 2017. The US produced 86.7 Mt of crude steel, up by 6.2% on 2017.

The CIS produced 101.3 Mt, an increase of 0.3%. Russia produced 71.7 Mt of crude steel in 2018, up by 0.3% on 2017. Ukraine produced 21.1 Mt of crude steel in 2018, a decrease of -1.1% compared to 2017.

January 2019 Issue

Annual crude steel production for South America was 44.3 Mt in 2018, an increase of 1.3% on 2017. Brazil produced 34.7 Mt in 2018, up by 1.1% compared to 2017.

The Middle East produced 38.5 Mt of crude steel in 2018, an increase of 11.7% on 2017. Iran produced 25.0 Mt in 2018, up 17.7% on 2017.

Turkey’s crude steel production for 2018 was 37.3 Mt, down by 0.6% on 2017.



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