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Not only does the collective knowledge of

genocide allow for the possibility of creating an early warning system, but such understanding also enables the development of what Stanton calls a “preventive toolbox.” Such a toolbox would be filled with measures designed to halt and de-escalate the genocidal process. These could each be tailored to a specific situation and designed for implementation by any number of actors ranging from the target group members themselves, to civil society, to the United Nations. This is not to say that preventing genocide will ever be easy, but just that it is possible. Unfortunately, most of these ideas have not been implemented and academics must strive to make their work accessible.

Action

Activists, on the other hand, many of whom are

students, bring a lot of youthful enthusiasm and good intentions to the table. However, while they have an important role to play in preventing genocide, activists also have a number of disadvantages. First, in general, most human rights activism tends to be reactive rather than proactive, focusing on condemning abuses after they happen rather than preventing them beforehand. Second, many activists take an indirect approach to their issues, relying on advocacy rather than direct action. Third, and perhaps most important, activism generally does not involve cooperating with or empowering the target groups who have the most to lose. In the first case of reaction versus proaction, it

is a commonly accepted fact that very little, short of military intervention, will stop genocide once the extermination phase has begun. However, up until this point there are many more options for preventing genocide—the majority of which are nonviolent and

can be implemented without government support. For example, fostering intergroup cooperation and conducting local media activities to counter hate speech can reduce the risk of genocide. Evacuation plans can also be created in preparation for the worst- case scenario. If activists are able to apply the theory developed by genocide scholars, they will recognize trouble spots early on and begin calling for change while potential perpetrator governments can still be influenced and before extremists take over. With regard to influencing friendly governments or the Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25