ing responses to treatment, providing direct care and teaching patients to manage complex healthcare problems. Experts inside and outside healthcare have raised issues

that are affecting significantly how nursing care is provided and how future nurses will be educated. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Healthcare System” was a wake-up call for both healthcare providers and consumers.14

The report estimated that as many

as 98,000 Americans die each year of largely preventable medical errors and concluded that the goal of reducing harm to patients will be reached by developing a culture of safety in healthcare organizations and by changing the way healthcare professionals are educated. The implications of the IOM’s report for nursing education

(“Teaching IOM: Implications of the Institute of Medicine Reports for Nursing Education”) reinforce the need for under- graduate and graduate nursing students to be better prepared to develop and implement policies and practices that reduce harm and improve quality.15

patient care concerns for which nurses must provide leadership. Although providing direct physical care is the most visible nursing role, other roles — such as monitoring patient status, helping patients compensate for functional loss, providing emotional support, educating patients and families, and in- tegrating and coordinating care — are equally important to ensure consumers safe, high-quality, cost-effective healthcare. Work is in progress to guide curricula to prepare students for future nursing roles. The AACN documents key competencies for BSNs. These

competencies address the need for graduates to be able to use evidence-based practice, ensure patient safety, use clinical reasoning, work as members of an interprofessional team, and have a basic knowledge of genetics and genomics. The NLN posts both competencies for nursing program graduates and nurse educators. Nurse educators responded to the IOM reports by developing

the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project. The QSEN goal is to prepare future nurses to gain the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to continually improve the quality and safety of the healthcare system.16

competencies into nursing education:16 • Patient-centered care: Recognize that patients or their designees must be the source of control. Make them full partners in giving compassionate and coor- dinated care based on respect for their preferences, values and needs

• Teamwork and collaboration: Function effectively with- in nursing and interprofessional teams, fostering open communication, mutual respect, and shared decision making to achieve quality patient care

• Evidence-based practice: Integrate best current evi- dence with clinical expertise and patient/family prefer- ences and values for delivery of optimal healthcare

• Quality Improvement: Use data to monitor the out- comes of care processes, and use improvement methods to design and test changes continually to improve the quality and safety of healthcare systems

• Safety: Minimize risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance

You can find many resources for teaching the QSEN competencies and using various teaching strategies at its website.

Radical transformation The national study “Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Trans- formation,” is expected to have a significant impact on nursing education.17

Sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- This report outlines several key

vancement of Teaching in collaboration with the NLN, AACN and National Student Nurses’ Association, this publication is the first national study of nursing education in 30 years. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of contemporary nursing education, describes the most effective ways of teaching nursing students and calls for major changes in the way future nursing students will be educated.18 The study concluded that nurses are undereducated for the

demands of practice and that it’s increasingly difficult for nursing education to keep ahead of rapid changes driven by research and technology. Among the report’s most significant recommenda- tions are to: • Improve the integration of theory with clinical practice • Use active learning strategies with a focus on exemplars (i.e., accounts of skilled nursing practice) and case stud- ies to improve clinical reasoning

• Support nursing faculty in augmenting their teaching skills • Increase faculty compensation The Carnegie report urges educators to provide as many expe-

This includes integrating the following

riences as possible to allow students to practice clinical reasoning and multiple ways of evaluating and responding to patient needs as clinical situations evolve. Nursing faculty members should see themselves as learning coaches and mentors rather than as providers of content, a role that’s increasingly described as going from “sage on the stage” to “guide on the side.” Nurse educators have the opportunity to pass on their passion

for nursing and desire for great patient care and lifelong learn- ing to all those whose lives they touch. We all can remember a faculty member whose personal qualities continue to influence our practice. Opportunities abound for those who want to help shape nursing education. •

EDITOR’S NOTE: Maureen Habel, MA, RN, is the original author of this educational activity, but has not had an opportunity to influence the con- tent of this current version. Ann Kim, MSN, MPH, RN, CNS, and Nancy Schoofs, PhD, RN, are past authors of this educational activity, but have not had an opportunity to influence the content of this current version.

Rosalinda Alfaro-LeFevre, MSN, RN, ANEF, is president of Teaching Smart/ Learning Easy in Stuart, Fla. ( She’s known nationally and internationally for her books and programs on teach- ing critical thinking and improving personal and professional performance.

To see the references and take the test, go to 2016 • Visit us at 29

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