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24 Financial Statements 2011-12


Pension Schemes


The University participates in three principal pension schemes for employees. These are the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS) for academic and related staff, the Local Government Pension Scheme (LGPS) and the University of Essex Pension Scheme (UEPS) for other staff. The assets of the schemes are held in separate trustee-administered funds. All three schemes are defined benefit schemes and are contracted out of the State Second Pension (SP2).


Because of the mutual nature of the USS scheme, the University is unable to identify its share of the underlying assets and liabilities of the scheme on a consistent and reasonable basis and therefore, as required by FRS 17 “Retirement Benefits”, accounts for the scheme as if it were a defined contribution scheme. As a result, the amount charged to the income and expenditure account represents the contributions payable to the scheme in respect of the accounting period.


The assets of the LGPS and UEPS are measured using closing market values. LGPS and UEPS liabilities are measured using the projected unit method and discounted at the current rate of return on a high quality corporate bond of equivalent term and currency to the liability. The increase in the present value of the liabilities of the scheme expected to arise from employee service in the period is charged to the operating surplus. The expected return on the scheme’s assets and the increase during the period in the present value of the scheme’s liabilities arising from the passage of time, are included in pension finance costs. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the statement of total recognised gains and losses.


Provision has been made to meet a past service shortfall of members of the Local Government Pension Scheme who took early retirement. The payments made to these members are largely set against this provision.


In addition to the three main schemes the University has volunteered to be a pilot employer for the NEST (National Employment Savings Trust) pension scheme for staff employed under UECS terms and conditions. Being a pilot employer for the new scheme means early adoption of the initiative which does not become statutory until 2014. The schemes will be monitored and regulated by the DWP, The Pensions Regulator and NEST Corporation.


Taxation Status


The University is an exempt charity within the meaning of Schedule 2 of the Charities Act 1993 and as such is a charity within the meaning of Para 1 of Schedule 6 of the Finance Act 2010. Accordingly, the University is potentially exempt from taxation in respect of income or capital gains received within categories covered by Sections 478-488 of the Corporation Tax Act 2010 (CTA 2010) (formerly enacted in Section 505 of the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988 (ICTA)) or Section 256 of the Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992 to the extent that such income or gains are applied to exclusively charitable purposes.


All subsidiary companies are liable to Corporation Tax and Value Added Tax in the same way as any other commercial organisation.


The University’s principal activities are exempt from Value Added Tax, but certain ancillary supplies and services are liable to Value Added Tax at various rates. Expenditure includes irrecoverable Value Added Tax charged by suppliers to the University.


Any irrecoverable VAT allocated to tangible fixed assets is included in their cost.


Deferred Tax


Deferred tax is provided in full on timing differences which result in an obligation at the balance sheet date to pay more tax, or a right to pay less tax, at a future date, at rates expected to apply when they crystallise based on current rates and law. Timing differences arise from the inclusion of items of income and expenditure in taxation computations in periods different from those in which they are included in financial statements. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent they are regarded as more likely than not to be recovered. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are not discounted.


Intra-group Transactions


Gains or losses on any intra-group transactions are eliminated in full. Amounts in relation to debts and claims between undertakings included in the consolidation are also eliminated.


Balances between the University and its associates and joint ventures are not eliminated; unsettled normal trading transactions are included as current assets or liabilities. Any gains or losses are included in the carrying amount of assets of either entity; the part relating to the University’s share is eliminated.


Joint Venture Entities


The University’s share of income and expenditure in joint venture entities is recognised in the University’s income and expenditure account in accordance with FRS 9. Similarly the University’s share of assets and liabilities in associate entities is recognised in the University’s balance sheet in accordance with FRS 9. The gross equity method is used when consolidating joint venture entities.


Operating Leases


Costs in respect of operating leases are charged on a straight-line basis over the lease term.


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