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22 Financial Statements 2011-12

Endowments received to be applied to the cost of a tangible fixed asset (other than land) are shown on the balance sheet as a deferred capital grant. The deferred capital grant is released to the income and expenditure account over the same estimated useful life that is used to determine the depreciation charge associated with the tangible fixed asset except for land.

Endowment and investment income is credited to the income and expenditure account on a receivable basis. Any realised gains or losses from dealing in the related assets are retained within the endowment in the balance sheet.

Increases or decreases in value arising on the revaluation of endowment assets (other than land) i.e. the appreciation or depreciation of endowment assets, or on their disposal, is added to or subtracted from the funds concerned and accounted for through the balance sheet by debiting or crediting the endowment asset, crediting or debiting the endowment fund and is reported in the statement of total recognised gains and losses.

Receipts and Payments made on behalf of others

The University receives and disburses various funds on behalf of funding bodies and these are known as ‘agency arrangements’. This includes the payment of HEFCE grant to academic partners, NHS bursaries and Access to Learning Funds. These funds are excluded from the University’s income and expenditure account as the University is exposed to minimal risk or enjoys minimal economic benefit related to the transaction. Receipts and disbursements made under agency arrangements are disclosed in Note 30.

Cash Flows and Liquid Resources

Cash flows comprise increases or decreases in cash. Cash includes cash in hand, deposits repayable on demand and overdrafts. Deposits are repayable on demand if they are, in practice, available within 24 hours without penalty. No investments, however liquid, are included in cash.

Liquid resources comprise assets held as a readily disposable store of value. They include term deposits and other investments held as part of the University’s treasury management activities. They exclude such assets held as endowment asset investments.


Fixed asset investments and endowment asset investments are included in the Balance Sheet at market value unless the market value cannot be readily ascertained and the yields are unquantifiable and of a long-term nature, such as ‘seedcorn’ funds. In such instances, it is considered prudent to charge the cost of the investment to the revenue account

Maintenance of Premises

The University has a five-year rolling maintenance plan which is reviewed on an annual basis. The cost of all maintenance is charged to the Income and Expenditure Account as incurred.

in the year of its acquisition. Increases or decreases in value arising on the revaluation of fixed asset investments are carried to the revaluation reserve. Where a permanent diminution in value of an asset occurs, the excess will be charged to the Income and Expenditure Account to the extent that it is not covered by a revaluation surplus. The profit or loss on the disposal of an asset is accounted for in the year in which the disposal occurs as the difference between the net sale proceeds and the net carrying amount, whether carried at historical cost or valuation.

Investments in equities and gilts are generally treated as fixed asset investments whilst investments in the form of term deposits with banks and other financial institutions are shown as current asset investments.

Current asset investments are included at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Financial Instruments

Financial instruments are classified and accounted for according to the substance of the contractual arrangement, as financial assets, financial liabilities or equity instruments.

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the company after deducting all of its liabilities.

The university uses derivative financial instruments called interest rate swaps to reduce exposure to interest rate movements. Such derivative financial instruments are not held for speculative purposes and relate to actual assets or liabilities or to probable commitments, changing the nature of the interest rate by converting a variable rate to a fixed rate. Interest differentials under these swaps are recognised by adjusting net interest payable over the periods of the contracts. In instances where the derivative financial instrument ceases to be a hedge for an actual asset or liability, then it is marked to market and any resulting profit or loss recognised at that time.

Foreign Currencies

Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the rate of exchange ruling at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into sterling at the year-end rate of exchange. The resulting exchange differences are dealt with in the determination of income and expenditure for the financial year.

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