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Biodiversity


Protected areas now cover nearly 13 per cent of the total land area, with increasing recognition of indigenous and local community-managed areas. Concern remains, however, because protected areas are often isolated from one another. This can be addressed by establishing biological corridors between protected areas. Less than 1.5 per cent of total marine area is currently protected, while the internationally agreed goal in the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Aichi Biodiversity Target is 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas by 2020. 


Policies, regulations and actions have been adopted to minimize the pressures on biodiversity,  including reducing habitat loss, land conversion, pollution loads and the illegal trade in endangered species. These measures also encourage species recovery, sustainable harvesting, habitat restoration and the management of invasive alien species.


Nevertheless, substantial and on-going losses of species contribute to ecosystem deterioration. Up to two thirds of species in some taxa are threatened with extinction; species populations are declining, since 1970, vertebrate populations have fallen by 30 per cent (Figure 5); and since 1970 conversion and degradation has resulted in declines of 20 per cent of some natural habitats. Climate change will have profound impacts on biodiversity, particularly in combination with other threats.


Figure 5: Global Living Planet Index, 1970–2007


OPEN PDF : http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/SPM-05-Global-Living-Planet-index-2.pdf 

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