This book includes a plain text version that is designed for high accessibility. To use this version please follow this link.
Water, energy, socio-economic development and climate change are fundamentally linked. For example, traditional energy production sources result in increased GHG emissions and climate change that contribute to water scarcity, extreme climatic events such as flood and droughts, sea- level rise, and loss of glacial and polar sea ice. Responses to climate change, including developing energy sources with lower carbon footprints, can also have implications for the water environment. Hydropower production can contribute to fragmentation of river systems, while the construction of some solar-energy infrastructure consumes significant quantities of water, often in arid environments already experiencing water scarcity. As water scarcity increases, some regions will be forced to rely more on water harvesting and watershed management. Desalination may also make a contribution but currently requires large amounts of energy, financial and human resources, as well as technical assistance for its implementation.


There is a need to use water more efficiently. Ninety-two per cent of the total global water footprint is related to agriculture. Irrigation efficiency and water reuse could be increased by about a third simply by implementing existing technology (Figure 4). Prevention and reduction of aquatic pollution from both point and non-point sources are also vital steps in improving water availability for multiple uses. Though significant progress has been made on integrated water-management over the past 20 years, the overall pace of increasing pressures on water supplies and use needs to be matched by accelerated improvements in governance at all levels.

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38