operating costs falling from 64 to 26 per cent; the number of staff per 1 000 service connections falling from 36 to 11; unaccounted- for water reducing from 60 to 39 per cent; and revenue collection efficiency improving from 60 to 95 per cent. The number of customers connected to the city’s water network grew from 50 000 to 93 000 connections, and annual operating profit rose from USD 1.5 million to USD 4 million. The significance of the reforms is that more water became available for residents, and at the same time more revenue was collected for further investment into water and sanitation provision, including the delivery of services to the poor. Also due to the improvement in service delivery, the poor are increasingly showing willingness to pay for improved drinking water and sanitation services. For example, a recent survey by Mushabe (2011) showed that the willingness to pay for improved water services by the poor communities of Ndeeba-Kisenyi increased dramatically, and 80 per cent of the residents indicated that they can afford to pay for the services.
In view of the importance of groundwater, especially as the only source of water by the poor, the Wetlands Monitoring Unit is gazetting important wetlands as protected areas. It is expected that the gazetted wetlands would be revitalised so as to play the role of water purification, among other ecological functions.
• National water and sewerage cooperation should change their focus from development of infrastructure to better utilization and management of existing water infrastructure, than to improving regulation of water use.
• Changing patterns of the informal settlements through improved living standards, and increased awareness for better water and sanitation services, require adaptive institutions for sustainable, equitable, and productive management of services delivery.
• There is need for pro-poor approaches to urban water and sanitation delivery.
• Operation and maintenance should be decentralized, and the private sector involved as a way of improving efficiency, reducing costs, and ensuring service delivery even to the poor sectors of society.
• Involvement of community members from the beginning, in awareness raising,
planning, implementation and
monitoring, is a key supporting factor in the success and sustainability of the project.