tributing to the complexity of mine closure and its effects are difficulties in overall economic and market or- ganization, and the largely unsuccess- ful privatization process. Privatizing Ukraine’s coal industry has given rise
to various challenges, including finan- cial instability, bankruptcy proceed- ings, and a chronic shortage (or real- location) of funds for addressing the social and environmental problems associated with mine closures.
Trends in the impact of mining on the region’ environment
• Te owners of mining and metal- lurgical enterprises do not pay sufficient attention to solving en- vironmental problems.
• Expenditure connected with fixed capital assets intended for nature protection purposes amounts to only 0.3 to 0.4 per cent of the volume of fixed capi- tal investments.
• Over the last five years current expenditure on the main environ- mental measures doubled, where- as the financial efficiency of indus- try increased by a factor of 4.5.
• In the metallurgical industry the share of energy-intensive and envi- ronmentally-harmful open hearth steelmaking practices remains high (about 50 per cent) and prac- tically unchanged for many years.
• In ferrous metallurgy, sinter- ing plants, coke-oven batteries,
open-hearth and blast furnaces accounted for 60 per cent of total emissions of harmful sub- stances, and this share is not de- creasing.
• Use of fresh water and discharge of wastewater into surface water bodies are increasing in metal- lurgy, but on the decline in the coal industry.
• Losses of fresh water during transport are increasing, whereas reuse and recycling of water in in- dustry remain at a constant level.
• Further adverse factors linked to the environmental impact of mine closures have come to light in the last 10 years.
Tese processes are still in the development stage and many ad- verse consequences will become apparent in the near future.