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One-to-one tutoring identifi ed as
gold standard among interventions
for struggling readers
Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)
recently conducted a systematic review of
programs for struggling readers. According
to the review’s fi ndings, one-to-one tutoring
by certifi ed teachers and reading specialists
is the “gold standard” among interventions
for low-achieving students.
One-to-one tutoring is highly
effective in improving the
reading performance of low-
achieving students
As part of the review process, CRRE
looked at hundreds of studies evaluating
the effectiveness of various interventions for
struggling readers. A total of 96 studies met
the review’s rigorous inclusion standards.
The types of programs reviewed included
one-to-one tutoring by teachers, one-to-
one tutoring by paraprofessionals and
volunteers, small group tutorials, classroom instructional process programs, especially were shown to have little impact on low-
instructional process approaches, and cooperative learning, were also found to achieving students.
instructional technology. have positive effects. In particular, tutoring Taken together, the key fi ndings of this
After a thorough review of the research, in fi rst grade, followed by cooperative review support a strong focus on improving
CRRE concluded that one-to-one tutoring learning throughout the elementary grades, classroom instruction followed by targeted,
is highly effective in improving the reading was shown to have the best long-term phonetic tutoring for students who continue
performance of low-achieving students outcomes for struggling readers. Traditional to experience diffi culties.
and that an emphasis on phonics greatly instructional technology programs, which Center for Research and Reform in
improves tutoring outcomes. Classroom use computer-assisted instruction software, Education, 2009
Leadership academy for principals linked to
increased student achievement
ACCORDING TO A STUDY from New York principals in the study were installed in but at a pace no better than their non-APP
University’s Institute for Education and 2004-05 or 2005-06, remained in the same trained counterparts.
Social Policy, graduates of New York City’s school for three or more consecutive years, Created in 2003 by New York City’s
Aspiring Principals Program (APP) – a pre- and led their school through the 2007-08 Leadership Academy, APP is a 14-month
service principal training program – have school year. During those years, student leadership development program that uses
helped increase student achievement in test scores were collected and benchmarked teamwork, simulated-school projects, and
some of the city’s most challenging schools. against city-wide assessment data. job-embedded learning opportunities to
The study, which is the fi rst independent Findings of the study showed that, prepare participants to lead instructional
examination of APP’s effectiveness, for English Language Arts, graduates of improvement efforts. In particular,
systematically compared student outcomes APP helped increase student test scores participants are primed to manage schools
in schools led by APP graduates to student in elementary and middle schools at a marked by high student poverty and low
outcomes in comparable schools led by faster pace than other new principals. APP achievement.
traditionally trained new principals. All graduates also helped increase math scores, Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2009
24 Better: Evidence-based Education fall 2009
Better(US) Fall09.indb 24 14/10/09 13:05:44
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